Combat of Sassuolo, 23 June 1799

Combat of Sassuolo, 23 June 1799

Combat of Sassuolo, 23 June 1799

The combat of Sassuolo (23 June 1799) was a second French rearguard action (after the combat of San-Giorgio of 20 June) fought after the French defeat on the Trebbia on 17-19 June.

After suffering defeat on the Trebbia General Macdonald had retreated east to the River Nura, where his left wing (under General Victor), fought a rear-guard action at San-Giorgio. The French continued to retreat east, reaching the Secchia, another of the rivers that flow north from the Apennines to the Po. Macdonald's aim was to cross the Apennines and then move west along the coast to join up with General Moreau at Genoa.

The key to the French position was at Sassuolo, just to the south-west of Modena. If the Austro-Russians under Marshal Suvarov could force their way across the river at this position then they could prevent Macdonald from reaching the crucial passes.

Macdonald posted General Calvin's brigade at Sassuolo, and then ordered General Lacroix to join him. Suvarov sent General Ott, with his own and General Klenau's divisions, to attack this position.

At first the Allies were successful. Calvin retreated without a fight, and Sassuolo fell. Lacroix then arrived on the scene, and managed to retake Sassuolo, taking 600 prisoners and stopping the Allied pursuit.

In the aftermath of this success the French were able to continue their retreat. Macdonald reinforced the garrisons of Bologna and Urbino, and then moved south to Pistoia and Lucca. At the same time General Victor, now commanding the French rearguard which was still some way to the west, advanced up the Taro valley to join with General Lapoype's division. Their combined force was able to hold the mountain passes, and prevent the Austro-Russians from reaching the coast. Macdonald was able to advance west from Lucca to Sarzana, La Spezia and Sestri Levante to join up with Moreau at Genoa.

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Earthquake destroys Jamaican town

On June 7, 1692, a massive earthquake devastates the town of Port Royal in Jamaica, killing thousands. The strong tremors, soil liquefaction and a tsunami brought on by the earthquake combined to destroy the entire town.

Port Royal was built on a small island off the coast of Jamaica in the harbor across from present-day Kingston. Many of the buildings where the 6,500 residents lived and worked were constructed right over the water. In the 17th century, Port Royal was known throughout the New World as a headquarters for piracy and smuggling.

Earthquakes in the area were not uncommon, but were usually rather small. In 1688, a tremor had toppled three homes. But four years later, late in the morning on June 7, three powerful quakes struck Jamaica. A large tsunami hit soon after, putting half of Port Royal under 40 feet of water. The HMS Swan was carried from the harbor and deposited on top of a building on the island. It turned out to be a refuge for survivors.

Residents also soon discovered that the island of Port Royal was not made of bedrock. The relatively loosely packed soil turned almost to liquid during the quake. Many buildings literally sank into the ground. In the aftermath, virtually every building in the city was uninhabitable, including two forts. Corpses from the cemetery floated in the harbor alongside recent victims of the disaster.

On the main island, Spanish Town was also demolished. Even the north side of the island experienced great tragedy. Fifty people were killed in a landslide. In all, about 3,000 people lost their lives on June 7. There was little respite in the aftermath–widespread looting began that evening and thousands more died in the following weeks due to sickness and injury. Aftershocks discouraged the survivors from rebuilding Port Royal. Instead, the city of Kingston was built and remains to this day the largest city in Jamaica.


23d Wing - History - Tactical Air Command - McConnell Air Force Base

Following its longest period of inactivation, the group was organized as the 23d Tactical Fighter Wing on 8 February 1964, at McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas, under Tactical Air Command and Twelfth Air Force. The 23 TFW was activated to replace the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing at McConnell after its deployment to Korat RTAFB, Thailand. Squadrons of the 23 TFW were:

  • 561st Tactical Fighter Squadron
  • 562d Tactical Fighter Squadron
  • 563d Tactical Fighter Squadron
  • 560th Tactical Fighter Squadron (28 January 1964 – 25 September 1968)
  • 4519th Combat Crew/Tactical Fighter Training Squadron (1 August 1967 – 16 October 1969)
  • 419th Tactical Fighter Training Squadron (15 October 1969 – 8 May 1971)

Squadron markings on the natural metal / silver lacquered aircraft included the following: 561 TFS - black/yellow checkerboarding on rudder 562 TFS - a red, white and black "sharkmouth" on the nose of the aircraft 563 TFS red and white stripes on the rudder, wingtips and stabilizers with a white band on the top of the vertical fin.

When Southeast Asian camouflaged, the squadrons carried the following tail codes: 561 TFS "MD" 562 TFS "ME" 563 TFS "MF", and later the 4519th and 419th TFTS "MG".

Flying the Republic Aviation F-105D/G "Thunderchief" aircraft, the mission of the 23 TFW at McConnell was to provide training for Thud pilots prior to their deployment to Southeast Asia. The 560th acted as a combat training squadron, while the other three squadrons began rotational TDY deployments to Southeast Asia beginning in November 1964.

In February 1965, when the 23 TFW deployed three squadrons (the 561st, 562d and 563d) to Southeast Asia for combat, these units were initially under the control of the 2d Air Division. Later, the 6441 TFW (P) was activated at Takhli RTAFB in July 1965, taking control of the 23d's squadrons deployed there. It was during this five month tour that the 563d TFS lost 10 of its 18 F-105's deployed and was awarded two Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards with Combat "V" for Valor. In addition to the deployments to Thailand, detachments of the 561 TFS also deployed to Da Nang Air Base RVN for operations within the borders of the Republic of Vietnam.

On 1 August 1967, the 4519th Combat Crew Training squadron was added to the 23 TFW, and the 560 TFS was deactivated on 25 September 1968.

The wing maintained proficiency in tactical fighter operations, and later also functioned as an F-105 replacement training unit and assisted Air National Guard units in their conversion to the F-105 when the Thunderchief left first-line service. For the dual role it played from June 1970 to June 1971 as both an operational and a training unit, the wing received the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award in March 1971. Two of its squadrons, the 562d and 563d, also received the same award for their duty in Vietnam during 1965, but with the combat "V" added, the 563rd receiving two such awards in a five month period. For its participation in Linebacker I and Linebacker II during 1972 the 561st (Wild Weasels) received the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Combat "V".

During combat operations in Southeast Asia, the 562 TFS lost three aircraft, while the 563 TFS lost eleven aircraft.

On 1 July 1972 the 23 TFW was transferred to England AFB Louisiana and the 561, 562 and 563 TFS were assigned to the 35 TFW at George AFB California.

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To Edmund Randolph

I recieved only two days ago your favor of the 12th. and as it was on the eve of the return of our post, it was not possible to make so prompt a dispatch of the answer. Of all the doctrines which have ever been broached by the federal government, the novel one of the common law being in force & cognisable as an existing law in their courts, is to me the most formidable. all their other assumptions of un-given powers have been in the details. the banklaw, the treaty doctrine, the sedition act, alien act, the undertaking to change the state-laws of evidence in the state courts by certain parts of the stamp act, &c. &c. have been solitary unconsequential timid1 things in comparison of the audacious, barefaced and sweeping pretension to a system of law for the US. without the adoption of their legislature and so infinitely beyond their power to adopt. if this assumption is yielded to, the state courts may be shut up, as there will then be nothing to hinder citizens of the same state suing each other in the federal courts in every case, as on a bond for instance, because the common law obliges paiment of it, & the common law they say is their law. I am happy you have taken up the subject & I have carefully perused & considered the notes you inclosed, and find but a single paragraph which I do not approve. it is that wherein (page 2.) you say that laws being emanations from the legislative department, &, when once enacted, continuing in force from a presumption that their will so continues, that that presumption fails & the laws of course fall, on the destruction of that legislative department. I do not think this is the true bottom on which laws & the form [of] […] [administering] them rest. the whole body of the nation is the sovereign [legislative,] judiciary & executive power for itself. the inconvenience of meeting to exercise these powers in person & their inaptitude to exercise them, induce them to appoint special organs to declare their legislative will, to judge, & to execute it. it is the will of the nation which makes the law obligatory, it is their will which creates or annihilates the organ which is to declare & announce it. they may do it by a single person, as an emperor of Russia (constituting his declarations evidence of their will) or by a few persons, as the Aristocracy of Venice, or by a complication of councils, as in our former regal government, or our present republican one. the law being law because it is the will of the nation, is not changed by their changing the organ through which they chuse to announce their future will no more than the acts I have done by one attorney lose their obligation by my changing or discontinuing that attorney. this doctrine has been in a certain degree sanctioned by the federal executive. for it is precisely that on which the continuance of obligation from our treaty with France was established, and the doctrine was particularly developed in a letter to Gouverneur Morris written with the approbation of President Washington and his cabinet. Mercer once prevailed on the Virginia Assembly to declare a different doctrine in some resolutions. these met universal disapprobation in this as well as2 the other states, and, if I mistake not, a subsequent assembly did something to do away the authority of their former unguarded resolutions. In this case, as in all others, the true principle will be quite as effectual to establish the just deductions, for before the revolution the nation of Virginia had by the organs they then thought proper to constitute, established a system of laws, which they divided into three dominations of 1. common law. 2. statute law. 3. Chancery. or if you please into two only of 1. Common law. 2. Chancery. when by the declaration of Independance they chose to abolish their former organs for declaring their will, the acts of will already formally & constitutionally declared, remained untouched. for the nation was not dissolved, was not annihilated it’s will therefore remained in full vigour: and on the establishing the new organs, first of a convention, & afterwards a more complicated legislature, the old acts of national will continued in force, until the nation should by it’s new organs declare it’s will changed. the common law therefore, which was not in force when we landed here, nor till we had formed ourselves into a nation, and had manifested by the organs we constituted, that the common law was to be our law, continued to be our law, because the nation continued in being, & because tho’ it changed the organs for the future declarations of it’s will, yet it did not change it’s former declarations that the common law was it’s law. apply these principles to the present case. before the revolution there existed no such nation as the US. they then first associated as a nation but for special purposes only.3 they had all their laws to make, as Virginia had on her first establishment as a nation. but they did not, as Virginia had done, proceed4 to adopt a whole system of laws ready made to their hand. as their association as a nation was only for special purposes, to wit for the management of their concerns with one another & with foreign nations, and the states composing the association chose to give it powers for those purposes & no others, they could not adopt any general system, because it would have embraced objects on which5 this association had no right to form or declare a will. it was not the organ for declaring a national will in these cases. in the cases confided to them, they were free to declare the will of the nation, the law, but till it was declared there could be no law. so that the common law did not become ipso facto law on the new association, it could only become so by a positive adoption. & so far only as they were authorized to adopt.

I think it will be of great importance, when you come to the proper6 part to pourtray at full length the consequences of this new doctrine that the7 common law is the law of the US. and that their courts have of course jurisdiction co-extensive with that law, that is to say general over all cases & persons. but good heavens! who could have conceived in 1789. that within ten years we should have to combat such windmills. Adieu.

Randolph’s favor of the 12th, recorded in SJL as received on 16 Aug., has not been located. The Sedition Act and prosecutions for libel made the common law a topic of debate between Federalists and Republicans. Then in the spring of 1799 charges to grand juries by James Iredell and Oliver Ellsworth spurred debate on the existence and desirability of a federal common law of crimes. The question was not finally resolved until 1812, when the Supreme Court ruled that there was no such common law. Notes you inclosed: Randolph’s “Notes on the Common law” ended up with James Madison, who drew upon them to write on the subject in 1800. St. George Tucker, who in that year wrote a pamphlet on the issue, and Edmund Pendleton also saw Randolph’s notes ( Madison, Papers description begins William T. Hutchinson, Robert A. Rutland, J. C. A. Stagg, and others, eds., The Papers of James Madison , Chicago and Charlottesville, 1962–, 27 vols. description ends , 17:259–69, 304–5 DHSC description begins Maeva Marcus and others, eds., The Documentary History of the Supreme Court of the United States 1789–1800 , New York, 1985–2007, 8 vols. description ends , 3:235, 237, 318–19, 321–3, 330, 343–4, 348, 357–8, 376–80).


Editorial Note

The list of Mount Vernon slaves which GW drew up, probably some time in June 1799, included those slaves owned by him outright, those who were controlled by him as part of Martha Washington’s dowry, and a number who were rented by him in 1786 by contract with Mrs. Penelope French at the time he acquired her life rights to land that she owned on Dogue Run.

The slaves Washington owned in his own right came from several sources. He was left eleven slaves by his father’s will a portion of his half brother Lawrence Washington’s slaves, about a dozen in all, were willed to him after the death of Lawrence’s infant daughter and his widow and Washington purchased from time to time slaves for himself, mostly before the Revolution.

Washington also hired for varying periods of time individual slaves, usually skilled artisans, from neighbors and acquaintances. These do not appear on this slave list.

Only one other complete roll of the slaves at Mount Vernon has been found. In February 1786 Washington recorded in his diary all the Mount Vernon slaves, dower and personal, the farms on which they lived, and their jobs. The total at that time came to 216 it did not include Mrs. French’s slaves, the use of whom Washington acquired later in the year.

There are also in the Washington Papers at the Library of Congress Washington’s lists of his tithables in Truro and Fairfax parishes (where Mount Vernon lies) for every year from 1760 through 1774. These have been printed in the Papers, Colonial Series. These lists name slaves living at Mount Vernon but do not include children under the age of sixteen and a few elderly slaves who were not tithed. The lists of tithables also include the names of indentured white servants and other whites living on the farms, including GW’s overseers and managers. For further information on GW’s slaves, see Charles Lee to GW, 13 Sept. 1786, and especially note 4 to that document, GW to William Triplett, 25 Sept. 1786, and notes 3 and 5 ( Papers, Confederation Series description begins W. W. Abbot et al., eds. The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series . 6 vols. Charlottesville, Va., 1992–97. description ends , 4:247–49, 268–74), Memorandum: Division of Slaves [1762] and note to that document ( Papers, Colonial Series description begins W. W. Abbot et al., eds. The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series . 10 vols. Charlottesville, Va., 1983–95. description ends , 7:172–74), Division of Slaves, 10 Dec. 1754 (ibid., 1:227–31), and Diaries description begins Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, eds. The Diaries of George Washington . 6 vols. Charlottesville, Va., 1976–79. description ends , 4:277–83.

Negros Belonging to George Washington in his own right and by Marriage

1 . Capt. Thomas Hanson Marshall (1731–1801) lived at Marshall Hall, just across the Potomac River from Mount Vernon, in Charles County, Maryland.

2 . Will was Washington’s old mulatto body servant Billy, or William Lee, who had served with him throughout the Revolution. See note 3 to Washington’s Last Will and Testament.

3 . Washington had a total “26” here because of a mistake in bringing a figure from the previous page. The mistake was repeated in his summing up of Mansion House and Tradesmen.

4 . Christopher was Washington’s current body servant who was with him at his death. His wife was either a slave or a free black woman living at Roger West’s. See note 11 to Tobias Lear’s Narrative Accounts of the Death of George Washington.

5 . Molly, Charlotte, and Caroline—all listed here among the dower slaves—were in Washington’s room when he died. See Tobias Lear’s Narrative Accounts of the Death of George Washington.

6 . Mrs. Washington was Elizabeth Foote Washington, widow of Washington’s old manager and cousin Lund Washington, who lived at Hayfield, northwest of Mount Vernon. Several other Mount Vernon servants were married to slaves at Hayfield.

7 . “Adans” was probably Abednego Adams (1721–1809), Washington’s closest neighbor, who lived on Little Hunting Creek.

8 . This may be one of Robert Alexander’s (d. 1793) sons. Alexander had lived on a plantation upriver from Mount Vernon.

9 . Moreton was probably Archibald Moreton who lived near Belvoir on the road from Washington’s mill to Boggess’s house.

10 . This may be Daniel Stone who lived in Truro Parish on the road from Washington’s mill to Robert Boggess’s.

11 . Penelope Manley French lived at Rose Hill, on the back road to Alexandria.

12 . The slave list at NN , which was enclosed in GW’s letter to Benjamin Dulany of 15 July 1799, describes Julius as “A very good Carter, and can do any other work, although defective in Shape from his Infancy.”


First roller coaster in America opens

On June 16, 1884, the first roller coaster in America opens at Coney Island, in Brooklyn, New York. Known as a switchback railway, it was the brainchild of LaMarcus Thompson, traveled approximately six miles per hour and cost a nickel to ride. The new entertainment was an instant success and by the turn of the century there were hundreds of roller coasters around the country.

Coney Island, a name believed to have come from the Dutch Konijn Eilandt, or Rabbit Island, is a tract of land along the Atlantic Ocean discovered by explorer Henry Hudson in 1609. The first hotel opened at Coney Island in 1829 and by the post-Civil War years, the area was an established resort with theaters, restaurants and a race track. Between 1897 and 1904, three amusement parks sprang up at Coney Island𠄽reamland, Luna Park and Steeplechase. By the 1920s, Coney Island was reachable by subway and summer crowds of a million people a day flocked there for rides, games, sideshows, the beach and the two-and-a-half-mile boardwalk, completed in 1923.

The hot dog is said to have been invented at Coney Island in 1867 by Charles Feltman. In 1916, a nickel hot dog stand called Nathan’s was opened by a former Feltman employee and went on to become a Coney Island institution and international franchise. Today, Nathan’s is famous not only for its hot dogs but its hot dog-eating contest, held each Fourth of July in Coney Island. 

Roller coasters and amusement parks experienced a decline during the Great Depression and World War II, when Americans had less cash to spend on entertainment. Finally, in 1955, the opening of Disneyland in Anaheim, California, signaled the advent of the modern theme park and a rebirth of the roller coaster. Disneyland’s success sparked a wave of new parks and coasters. By the 1970s, parks were competing to create the most thrilling rides. 


Combat of Sassuolo, 23 June 1799 - History

A Timeline of Corruption and Attempts to Combat Corruption in New York State

Pre-revolutionary times through the 1700’s

1779 a New York governor, judge and two Indian affairs officials spent a weekend at an Albany tavern. They treated themselves to lamb, rum, sweet cakes, shaves and haircuts, and billed the state for $1,000 https://www.timesunion.com/tuplus-local/article/Political-corruption-in-Albany-a-very-old-story-6073854.php

1787 “A New York rule in 1787 was that any individual who would “directly or indirectly, attempt to influence any free elector of the state” would have to pay 500 pounds and be ‘utterly disables, disqualified and incapacitate, to hold exercise or enjoy any office, or place of trust or profit, whatsoever within this state.’” (Teachout 109)

Eighteenth Century NY Corruption

Tammany Hall Era

George Washington Plunkitt (1842-1924) was a Tammany Hall Boss. He gave talks on what he called "honest graft." Have a listen :

A Timeline of Corruption and Attempts to Combat Corruption in the United States

1758 “George Washington’s campaign for the Virginia House of Burgesses spends 39 Pounds (roughly $8,000 today) on alcohol to “treat” voters on Election Day. This is not considered unusual. http://www.newrivernotes.com/topical_books_1892_virginia_washingtontohouseofburgess.htm

1776 Maryland rule on bribery: “If any person shall give any bribe, present or reward, or any promise…to obtain or procure a vote….or to be appointed to…any office of profit or trust….[he] shall be forever disqualified to hold any office of trust or profit in this state.” (Teachout 108-109).

1778 American emissary to France, Silas Deane, accepts golden snuff box from the King in contravention of the law that "no person in the service of the United States should accept from any king, prince, or minister any present or gratuity whatsoever….”(Teachout 23) (later on Arthur Lee and Benjamin Franklin also accepted golden snuff boxes).

1787Constitutional Convention & Federalist Papers
Franklin speaking at the Constitutional Convention: The Constitution was “likely to be well administered for a course of years, and can only end in despotism, as other forms have done before it, when the people shall become so corrupted as to need despotic government, being incapable of any other.” (Teachout, p. 15)

Constitution provision Article I, Section 9 (the "Emolument Clause"): “No person holding any office of profit or trust under them [the United States], shall without the consent of the Congress accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatsoever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.”

"A number of Republicans, including most of their leaders, are bad enough, but over half the Democrats. are vicious, stupid-looking scoundrels with apparently not a redeeming trait.

-NY Assemblyman Teddy Roosevelt

1882Teddy Roosevelt as a NY Assemblyman witnesses several accept bags of cash from Tammany Hall operatives to kill bills in committee that would adversely affect their business partners.
https://www.timesunion.com/tuplus-local/article/Political-corruption-in-Albany-a-very-old-story-6073854.php

To own our future, we must first own our past.

We are working on a series of timelines for corruption and corruption reform in New York State and throughout the U.S.

This exhibition is currently under construction.

The Museum of Political Corruption

Washington DC was an:

"Out-of-the-way, one horse town, whose population consists of office-holders, lobby buzzards, landlords, loafers, blacklegs, hackmen and Cyprian – all subsisting on public plunder…The paramount, overshadowing occupation of the residents, is office-holding and lobbying, and the prize of life is a grab at the contents of UNCLE SAM’s till. The public plunder interest swallows up all others, and makes the city a great festering, unbealable sore on the body politic. No healthy public opinion can reach down here to purify the moral atmosphere of Washington.

" I think I can say, and say with pride, that we have some legislatures that bring higher prices than any in the world,"

"Corruption strikes at the foundation of all law. The bribe giver is worse than the thief, for the thief robs the individual, while the corrupt official plunders an entire city or State.”

“If men were angels no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.”

and The Center for Ethical Governance

1888 Nellie Bly “purchases” New York State legislature for $1,000 (plus $250 fee) to have a particular bill killed.

20th Century New York State Politics

1901 Jotham P. Allds of Norwich, a Republican elected Senate majority leader in 1910. A bribe Allds took in 1901 as chairman of an Assembly committee was leaked by a legislator to the New York Evening Post. Allds originally asked for $5,000, but settled on $1,000 cash, handed over in an envelope. Allds resigned in disgrace, and a wide-ranging legislative corruption investigation was promised but never materialized. https://www.timesunion.com/tuplus-local/article/Political-corruption-in-Albany-a-very-old-story-6073854.php

1986: Senate Minority Leader Manfred Ohrenstein was charged with assigning Senate staff to work on political campaigns in 1986 elections. The Manhattan Democrat was cleared after the Court of Appeals ruled the Legislature did not prohibit the practice, common at the time. He stepped down in 1995 after 34 years. He became a lobbyist. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

1991 Assembly Speaker Mel Miller was accused of cheating clients out of proceeds in the sale of eight cooperative apartments and convicted by a federal jury in 1991. The conviction was overturned on appeal. He became a lobbyist. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

21st Century Corruption

2000: Sen. Guy Velella, a Bronx Republican, pleaded guilty to taking bribes from contractors from 1995 to 2000 and helping them win public works contracts. He resigned from his seat and spent six months in jail. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2006 State Comptroller Alan Hevesi, a Democratic assemblyman from Queens for 22 years and later New York City comptroller, pleaded guilty in state court to fraud in 2006 for using state workers to chauffeur his wife. He was fined $5,000 and barred from holding public office. In 2011, he pleaded guilty to corruption charges in a pay-to-play scandal involving the state's massive pension system. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2009 Democratic Assemblyman Anthony Seminerio pleaded guilty to defrauding his Queens constituents of honest services and collecting $1 million in consulting fees by leveraging his legislative job. He was sentenced in February to six years in prison. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2010 Then-Attorney General Andrew Cuomo filed suit in April against Senate Majority Leader Pedro Espada, accusing the Bronx Democrat of siphoning $14 million for himself and his family from his government-funded health care clinic in the Bronx. A day later, federal agents raided the clinic as part of a criminal investigation. Espada was later found guilty on federal embezzlement charges. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2011 - 2013: Former State Rep. William Boyland Jr. is arrested and later acquitted of bribery charges stemming from allegations he took a no-show job in exchange for doing political favors for a corrupt hospital official in New York City. Less than two weeks after his acquittal, Boyland was arrested on bribery charges again, with prosecutors claiming to have secretly recorded the assemblyman soliciting $250,000 in bribes to pay his legal fees for the first trial, according to the New York Times. Then, in 2013, the Brooklyn Democrat was again arrested on mail fraud charges after he allegedly filed for travel reimbursements for his trips to Albany despite never leaving New York City. He was acquitted on those charges a few months later, then pleaded guilty in the second bribery case. He maintained his seat in the Assembly until his conviction in March of 2014.2012 (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2013 State Sen. Shirley Huntley was arrested after she was named in a 20-count indictment charging the Queens Democrat and others with fraudulently using $30,000 in state education grants to benefit associates in a nonprofit she founded. She pleaded guilty to one charge of mail fraud in 2013, and was sentenced to one year and a day in prison.

2013: State Sen. Malcolm Smith, a Queens Democrat, and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were both arrested in April on conspiracy, wire fraud and extortion charges after the pair allegedly plotted to get Smith onto the New York City mayoral ballot by paying off GOP county chairmen. Smith was found guilty of federal corruption charges in February of 2015. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2014 State Rep. Eric Stevenson, a Bronx Democrat, was arrested on federal corruption charges in April for allegedly taking bribes in exchange for help he gave to businessmen trying to open an adult day care center. He was convicted of bribery and extortion in January of 2014. (Timeline: A History of Political Corruption in Albany https://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/New-York-History-Political-Corruption-Albany-Sheldon-Smith-Spitzer-Cuomo-289436551.html)

2013 State Senator John L. Sampson was indicted by a federal grand jury for embezzlement, obstruction of justice, and making false statements to the Federal Bureau of Investigation stemming from alleged theft of $400,000 from the sale of foreclosed homes, to which he pleaded not guilty. On the same day, Sampson was stripped of his committee assignments and ranking positions and removed from the Senate Democratic Conference. Despite the indictment, Sampson won re-election in 2014. On July 24, 2015, Sampson was convicted of one count of obstruction of justice and two counts of making false statements to federal agents, which are felonies, and was automatically expelled from the Senate.


History of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse

Few attractions that dot the coastline of North Carolina are as famous as the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse. Located in Buxton, this iconic black-and-white spiraled structure is the crown jewel of Hatteras Island and attracts nearly 200,000 visitors each year. If you’re planning a trip to our barrier island paradise, your vacation won’t be complete without a visit to this Outer Banks landmark that has protected the treacherous shoals of the Graveyard of the Atlantic for centuries.

Just off the coast of Cape Hatteras, the Labrador Current—a current of cold water that flows south from the coast of Canada—and the Gulf Stream—an ocean current comprised of warm waters from the Gulf of Mexico—collide and create one of the most dangerous spots for ships and sailors in Atlantic Ocean: the Diamond Shoals. When Congress recognized the hazards posed by this stretch of shoreline in 1794, the construction of a lighthouse was authorized to protect those attempting to navigate their way around the 12-mile-long sandbar.

The construction process began in 1799, and in October 1803 the original Cape Hatteras Lighthouse—a 90-foot-tall sandstone structure that boasted a lamp powered by whale oil—was lit for the first time. Despite its builders’ good intentions, the lighthouse was unable to effectively warn the sailors out at sea that they were entering the perilous waters of the Graveyard of the Atlantic. Deemed too short to send a strong enough signal to those whose ships were nearing Cape Hatteras, the lighthouse received numerous complaints, and in 1853 the Lighthouse Board approved the addition of 60 feet to the height of the structure.

Taking into account other complaints sailors had frequently made about the original lighthouse—namely that the unpainted sandstone exterior didn’t provide a stark contrast to the sky during daylight hours—the second version of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse was painted white on the bottom and red on the top so it no longer blended into the background. To ensure the structure’s signal was strong enough to reach mariners sailing toward the treacherous coastline, the new lighthouse was retrofitted with a kerosene-powered Fresnel lens that allowed it to emit a much stronger beam of light that could be seen nearly 20 miles from shore. After years of use, however, the structure was in need of extensive repairs, and funds were soon appropriated for a new lighthouse that could better serve the needs of sailors traveling up and down the Eastern Seaboard.

Construction got underway in October 1868, and in February 1871—two months after the new lighthouse was first lit in 1870—the 1803 lighthouse was demolished. In 1873, the present-day Cape Hatteras Lighthouse received its characteristic spiral marking of black and white stripes. Assigned by the Lighthouse Board, this distinctive daymark pattern as well as a unique light sequence—known as a “nightmark,” in which the light flashes every 7.5 seconds—helped to distinguish the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse from other navigational aids along the East Coast.

Although the newly constructed third rendition of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse was both tall enough and bright enough to successfully warn ships of the dangerous shoals that lay ahead, the structure soon found itself facing another major challenge: Mother Nature. The tower was originally built in a spot deemed safe from the crashing waves of the Atlantic Ocean however, with each year that passed and every hurricane and nor’easter that hit the Outer Banks, more of the shoreline was stripped away, leaving the lighthouse increasingly vulnerable to imminent destruction.

In 1893, the lighthouse stood 1,500 feet from the shoreline, but by 1975 only 175 feet separated the structure from the pounding surf—and cracks in the tower resulted in the lighthouse being closed to the public. In 1980 the lighthouse sat just 50 feet from the ocean, and the following year the “Save the Lighthouse Committee” was formed by U.S. Senator Helms and North Carolina Governor Hunt, among others. An independent study requested by the National Park Service (NPS) recommended relocation of the Outer Banks landmark, and the NPS later announced that moving the lighthouse to a safer spot posed less of a risk than leaving the structure in its perilous position. Restoration of the damaged tower began in 1990, and the lighthouse was reopened to the public in 1993.

Six years later, in 1999, the keepers’ quarters, oil house and two cisterns were moved to a new site further inland, and soon after, the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse began a journey that would garner worldwide attention. Over a period of just 23 days, in an effort to combat the ever-present threat of shoreline erosion the lighthouse faced as it stood precariously perched mere feet from the crashing waves of the Atlantic Ocean. The 4,830-ton historic structure was lifted off its foundation at the edge of the encroaching sea, loaded onto a transport system and moved 2,900 feet to the southwest from the spot where it had stood since 1870. In 2000, the lighthouse finally reopened to the public. Now safely situated 1,500 feet from the shoreline, the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse resumed its longtime duty of serving as a sentinel on the southern shores of the Outer Banks and continues to provide warnings to mariners brave enough to navigate the Diamond Shoals to this day.

At a height of 210 feet, the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse is the tallest brick lighthouse in the United States. From the third Friday in April through Columbus Day, visitors can climb 257 steps to the top of this Outer Banks landmark, where they will be treated to unparalleled 360-degree views of the Atlantic Ocean, Pamlico Sound and the villages that surround this historic structure located in the heart of Hatteras Island.


This 1783 Volcanic Eruption Changed The Course Of History

The sun fades away, the land sinks into the sea,
the bright stars disappear from the sky,
as smoke and fire destroy the world,
and the flames burn the sky.
- The end of the world according to the "Völuspa," a collection of Icelandic myths

Volcanoes are not an unusual sight on Iceland, but the eruption that began on June 8, 1783, in the southern district of Síða was something that had never seen before. During the next eight months, an estimated 14 km³ (about 3.7 quadrillion gallons, enough to fill 330 feet deep valleys entirely) of lava poured out from 135 fissures and volcanic craters near the town of Klaustur. The lava from the fissures ended up covering an estimated 2,500 km² (965 sq mi) of land, which threatened to overrun not only many farms but also the entire town. The newly formed chain of volcanoes was named later Laki.

Map showing the chain of fissures and craters of Laki on the upper bottom. The lava flows moved . [+] towards the sea and surrounded the town of Klaustur. Image from Magnus Stephensen's Kort Beskrivelse: Vester-Skaptefields-Syssel paa Island (1785). Image in public domain.

The pastor and self-taught naturalist of Klaustur, Jón Steingrímsson, described the unfolding disaster:

The flood of fire flowed with the speed of a great swollen river with meltwater on a spring day. [] Great cliffs and slabs of rock were swept along, tumbling about like large whales swimming, red-hot and glowing.

Fortunately, the lava flows stopped in time, ending the danger. So it seemed, anyway.

It tuned out, however, that the lava wasn't the only threat to Iceland. Volcanic ash from the eruption was carried away by the wind and poisoned the land and sea. Animals suddenly developed "ridges" and "growths" on their legs. Observers also noted they became "bloated" and their mouths swelled. This "pestilence" - a severe fluorine-intoxication from the ash - killed half of the Icelandic cattle population and a quarter of the sheep and horse population.

Nothing would grow on the fields and no more fish could be found in the sea. If not protected from the ash, food and water became poisonous. Jón Steingrímsson described also the strange sickness, probably caused by the element fluorine found in volcanic ash, affecting the people

Those people who did not have enough older and undiseased supplies of food to last them through these times of pestilence also suffered great pain. Ridges,growths, and bristle appeared on their rib joins, ribs, the backs of their hands, their feet, legs, and joints. Their bodies became bloated, the insides of their mouths and their gums swelled and cracked, causing excruciating pains and toothaches

In the resulting plague and famine from 1783-1784, an estimated nine thousand people -one-fifth of the population of Iceland -died.

But the Laki eruption had possibly even more widespread effects (even if at the time there were no airlines). In the months after the eruption, a strange haze covered the sky above Europe, making breathing difficult. As the ash and gases from the eruption entered the high layers of the atmosphere, they absorbed moisture and sunlight, changing the climate for years to come.

From 1783 to 1785 accounts from both Japan and America describe terrible droughts, exceptional cold winters, and disastrous floods. In Europe, the exceptionally hot summer of 1783 was followed by long and harsh winters. The resulting crop failures may have triggered one of the most famous insurrections of starving people in history, the French Revolution of 1789-1799.

It's a sobering reminder that destructive changes to the environment can have long-lasting and far-reaching impacts, even from hundreds of miles away.

Iceland and some of its volcanoes, from the "Physical Atlas" by Heinrich Berghaus (1838-48). Red . [+] dots are active volcanoes, rose are the regions covered by basaltic lava. Below an image of the famous Eyjafjallajökull. Its ash clouds, despite not causing widespread famine and pestilence, had still a great impact on our modern society.


How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?

I was a first responder to a helicopter accident that occurred between Fort Hood Texas and the sea port in Louisiana. The helicopters were AH-1 Cobra's and I was the crew chief for both. The pilots were close friends and were deceased when I arrived. Until recently. I've had a complete memory gap for the timeline  and details of this event. I was diagnosed with PTSD/Severe Depression five years ago as the memories of this event came flooding back. On advise from my medical team, I applied for a VA Claim to get my trauma service connected. I was denied because they could not find any records of said event to connect to my claim.

I am extremely frustrated and depressed over this. I have scoured the web for any information, as well as had several friends do the same and have found  nothing.

I would appreciate any advice and or direction.

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?
Ryan Bass 28.03.2017 10:07 (в ответ на Edward Maxwell)

I am reposting Megan Dwyre's response to a similar question:

Army Aviation Accident Reports from 1957 to the present are at the U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center.  You may wish to write them at: U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center,  ATTN: CSSC-SS (FOIA), 4905 5th Avenue, Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5363.

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?
Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?
Rebecca Collier 28.03.2017 11:02 (в ответ на Ryan Bass)

Ryan-- I believe that is combat only. This was a domestic accident. --Becky

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?

I didn’t see you original post, what accident are you referring to? Can you give aproximadamente date and type aircraft and unit if possible

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?
Megan Dwyre 29.03.2017 9:54 (в ответ на Edward Maxwell)

Do you remember the names of the individuals who were killed? If you do, you may be able to request their Individual Deceased Personnel Files (IDPFs). IDPFs from 1915-1976 are in the custody of the National Archives at St. Louis, ATTN: RL-SL, P.O. Box 38757, St. Louis, MO 63138-1002. Please contact them regarding access to these records. Their email address is [email protected] IDPFs dated after 1976 are in the legal custody of the Army. For the exact location of these files, please contact the Acting Army Records Officer, Army Records Management Division, 7701 Telegraph Road, Alexandria, VA 22315. The telephone number is 703-428-6437.

You may also want to check the Casualty databases on our Access to Archival Databases portal (NARA - AAD - Main Page), although they will not provide detailed information about the incident. Many of the databases relate to combat deaths, but two that you may find useful are the "Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS) Files," which cover ca. 1950-2006, and the "Records of Deceased, Wounded, Ill, or Injured Army Personnel, which cover 1961-1981. If they do appear in the databases, the entry might at least provide you with a unit and date of death.

Sincerely,
Megan DwyreNational Archives at College Park, MD

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?

This is very good information, and the Defense Casualty Analysis System does have basic data toward fatalities. In some cases the fatalities are listed as Non Hostile during the Cold War, even though they were due to terrorist or Soviet Bloc Hostilities. The bombing fatality by the Red Army Faction, at the Rein Main Frankfurt airport in 1985,  is noted in the DCAS as accident related. The shooting of a US Army Liason officer by an East German guard in 1985, is noted as non-hostile homicide. The Officer is noted as the last casualty of the Cold War and did receive  a Purple Heart. The Bombing of the US Marine barracks in Lebanon in 1983 is noted as non-hostile, and the Battle of Mogadishu, Black Hawk Down,  in Somalia is noted as terrorist related. The classifications of non hostile, accidental, KIA, and Terrorist military action is dependent on the rules of engagement by the Joint Chiefs.  It seems if a countries citizens are declared as insurgents, then the fatalities are considered Hostile and KIA. The authorization of the Global War on Terror Medal, or  legislative authority, dictate how casualties are classified during each campaign period.  In some instances this data is utilized by the CURR Joint Center for Unit Record Research data base, which is used by the VA to verify unit events. For instance, I am a Desert Storm veteran, but unable to register with the VA Burn Pit data base, because I am not verified by the DOD as a Desert Storm Veteran, even though I have a DD214, and DD215 from the Army Human Resources Command, which updated my Kuwait Liberation Medal (Saudi Arabia) , Kuwait Liberation Medal (Kuwait), Armed Forces Reserve Medal, and Southwest Asia Service Medal with 2 service stars. Calling the VA, and sending an Email to the VA Senate Subcommittee, made no difference. A year later, and I am still considered ineligible

to register for the Burn Pit Registry, even though it states Desert Storm veterans qualify.  It's a Catch 22. But I can't complain, because I have really learned so much.

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?
Deborah Powe 03.04.2017 15:15 (в ответ на Edward Maxwell)

This link from the National Transportation & Safety Board might have the answers you need. If not, hopefully, they will be able to point you in the right direction.

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?
Megan Dwyre 03.04.2017 15:31 (в ответ на Deborah Powe)

That site looks like it is related to civil aviation - not sure if it would cover military accidents.

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?
Deborah Powe 14.04.2017 11:48 (в ответ на Deborah Powe)

Another resource that could answer your question is shown below:

-Aircraft and Vehicle Accidents/Mishap Reports, Afloat and Ashore

Mishap reports, Aircraft accidents from May 22, 1969, to present

Vehicle accidents from 1993 to present Afloat or ashore mishaps from

May 21, 1969, to present Marine ground mishaps from October 1, 1987, to

present: Commander Naval Safety Center 375 A Street Norfolk, VA

-Aircraft Mishap reports prior to May 1969, Deck logs less than 30

years old, Navy Combat Action Reports, Shipwreck and Marine

Archaeology reports, cancelled or superseded OP Orders: Director,

Naval Historical Center (Naval Warfare Division) 2000 Navy Pentagon

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?

Thanks Deb. I'm not sure how this will help as it shows that its regarding Navy reports and I was Army.

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?

Critical factors involving the aviation accident would involve, the date, unit and command. Most combat aviation attack helicopters are now Apaches. The combat aviation units assigned at the Army Division level would fall under FORSCOM, Forces Command,  while still in the United States. If the unit was being deployed from an area such as Vietnam, Korea or Europe and returning to the United States, then it may have been designated under a different Corps or Command. Fort Hood has historically been the home of the 2nd Armored Division with forward units in Germany, and the 1st Calvary Division. There are Army regulations concerning personal privacy regarding the release of accident reports and witness statements. If there were fatalities, then there would be notifications to the county coroner, and law enforcement agencies with jurisdiction. Building a time line and chain of notification and evidence toward the event should begin with the law enforcement agencies establishing jurisdiction.  If the event occurred on a military reservation, then the provost marshal and emergency medical responders would have been notified. Older records would have been microfilmed or transferred to the National Archives using the SF135 Record Receipt and Transmittal Forms. The Record Groups containing records for Vietnam or Post Vietnam Army records would have been utilized. Specific Campaign Periods, such as Grenada or Lebanon may have their after action reports, unit logs and casualty lists itemized and described on the SF135 inventory forms during the transfer to the Washington National Record Center. Records held at the WNRC are controlled by their originating agency.  A FOIA or MDR to the originating agency would have to include a request for any documents still held at the WNRC. Since many of these documents may not be referenced in current Data Bases, it would be necessary to review a possible list of PDF files. Some records are also stored in contract facilities, such as underground mines that meet NARA 's standards for humidity control and fire suppression during the inspection process. As far as I have learned during my research, it can become a complicated process when attempting to review historic evidence.               

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?

Michael, thank you very much for the information. As I am a Desert Storm era veteran, this information is extremely appreciated.

Everyone else, thank you for your input and advise. I am very appreciative of all of you.

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?

The VA and DOD Joint Unit Record Research Center data base most likely does not include accidents or medical injuries. There are many events that are also omissions due to incomplete after action reports,  or purposeful omissions due to intelligence, security classifications and geo political events. This address may be of assistance toward a FOIA. request.

Army Aviation Accident Reports ,  U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center,  ATTN: CSSC-SS (FOIA), 4905 5th Avenue, Fort Rucker, AL 36362-5363

Re: How to find records of specific US Army helicopter accident?

I spoke with Vickie Hendrix, the FOIA Officer for the Ft. Rucker CRC and, after I filed a FOIA request, she wrote back within an hour stating that she had found the specific Aircraft Accident Report that I was looking for.  Their records go far back into history. my search was for a crash in Vietnam during 1967.  It takes about three weeks before they email the results back to you.  Their database is sorted by date, not by tail number.  Their research time is free for the first two hours and thereafter it is $44 per hour.  The actual FOIA request does not require a specific form and it can be a simple email to Vickie that includes as much detail as you can provide.  Here is her contact information:


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