Boris Sturmer

Boris Sturmer


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Boris Sturmer was born in Russia in 1848. A member of the Russian civil service, Sturmer became Governor of Yaroslavl. In February, 1916, Sturmer was surprisingly appointed by Nicholas II to replace Ivan Goremykin as prime minister.

Alexander Kerensky disagreed with this decision: "Sturmer, an extreme reactionary who hated the very idea of any form of popular representation or local self-government. Even more important, he was undoubtedly a believer in the need for an immediate cessation of the war with Germany."

Bernard Pares, the British Military Observer to the Russian Army, was also highly critical of this appointment: "Sturmer was a shallow and dishonest creature, without even the merit of courage. Sturmer was prepared to pose as a semi-liberal and to try in this way to keep the Duma quiet. Rasputin backed Sturmer, and also the Empress, and he was suddenly appointed Prime Minister on February 2nd and to the surprise of everyone, and most of all Goremykin, who, as was usual with the Emperor, had never been given the idea that he was even in danger."

A well-known opponent of democratic government, Sturmer was much hated by the Duma. The following month he also became Minister of the Interior and in July, 1916, replaced Sergei Sazonov at the foreign office. In poor health, Sturmer was an incompetent minister and rumours circulated that along with Alexandra and Gregory Rasputin, was involved in negotiating a peace agreement with Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Nicholas II came under considerable pressure from the Duma concerning Sturmer and in November, 1916, he was removed Sturmer from office. After the February Revolution, the Provisional Government had Sturmer arrested.

Boris Sturmer died in prison on 2nd September, 1917.

Sturmer was a shallow and dishonest creature, without even the merit of courage. Rasputin backed Sturmer, and also the Empress, and he was suddenly appointed Prime Minister on February 2nd and to the surprise of everyone, and most of all Goremykin, who, as was usual with the Emperor, had never been given the idea that he was even in danger.

On January 19, Goremykin was replaced by Sturmer, an extreme reactionary who hated the very idea of any form of popular representation or local self-government. Even more important, he was undoubtedly a believer in the need for an immediate cessation of the war with Germany.

During his first few months in office, Sturmer was also Minister of Interior, but the post of Minister of Foreign Affairs was still held by Sazonov, who firmly advocated honouring the alliance with Britain and France and carrying on the war to the bitter end, and who recognized the Cabinet's obligation to pursue a policy in tune with the sentiments of the majority in the Duma.

On August 9, however, Sazonov was suddenly dismissed. His portfolio was taken over by Sturmer, and on September 16, Protopopov was appointed acting Minister of the Interior. The official government of the Russian Empire was now entirely in the hands of the Tsarina and her advisers.


Boris Stürmer

Boris Vladimirovitš Stürmer (ven. Борис Владимирович Штюрмер , Štjurmer 28. heinäkuuta (J: 16. heinäkuuta) 1848 – 2. syyskuuta (J: 20. elokuuta) 1917 Pietari) oli venäläinen virkamies, joka toimi Venäjän pää-, ulko- ja sisäministerinä ensimmäisen maailmansodan aikana vuonna 1916. [1]

Stürmer aloitti virkauransa vuonna 1872 Venäjän oikeusministeriöstä, josta hän siirtyi myöhemmin hoviministeriöön. Vuodesta 1892 hän toimi kuvernöörinä Tverissä, Novgorodissa sekä Jaroslavlissa. Hän sai 1888 kamariherran ja 1896 hovimestarin arvon. Stürmer nimitettiin 1902 sisäministeriön osastopäälliköksi ja hänestä tuli sisäministeri Vjatšeslav von Plehwen läheinen apulainen. Plehwen murhan (1904) jälkeen Stürmer vetäytyi pitkäksi aikaa aktiivisesta viranhoidosta ja toimi valtakunnanneuvoston jäsenenä. [2]

Suhteellisen vähän tunnettu Stürmer nimitettiin Venäjän pääministeriksi 2. helmikuuta 1916 keisarinna Aleksandran ja munkki Rasputinin tuella, joista hän oli koko virkakautensa ajan riippuvainen. Keisari Nikolai II johti sodankäyntiä rintaman lähellä ja oli sivussa hallitustoimista. Maaliskuussa Stürmer sai hoidettavakseen samanaikaisesi myös sisäministerin ja heinäkuussa vielä ulkoministerinkin tehtävät. Venäjä kärsi tuolloin inflaatiosta sekä elintarvikepulasta. Stürmerillä ei ollut omaa selkeää linjaa pääministerinä ja häntä on pidetty epäpätevänä tehtäviinsä. Häntä epäiltiin myös saksalaismieliseksi ja marraskuussa 1916 kokoontunut duuma esitti avoimesti syytöksiä häntä vastaan. [1] Kadettipuolueen johtaja Pavel Miljukov syytti Stürmeria valtiosalaisuuksien paljastamisesta viholliselle ja Rasputinin kaltaisten ”pimeiden voimien” myötäilystä. [2] Stürmer menetetti nyt myös keisarinnan ja Rasputinin tuen ja erosi lopulta tehtävistään 23. (10.) marraskuuta. [1]

Helmikuun vallankumouksen jälkeen väliaikainen hallitus pidätti Stürmerin ja hänet vangittiin Pietari-Paavalin linnoitukseen. Häntä vastaan valmisteltiin oikeudenkäyntiä valtiopetoksesta, mutta hän kuoli vankeudessa ennen kuin prosessia ehdittiin aloittaa. [1]


Boris Stürmer

Stürmer var utbildad jurist från Sankt Petersburgs universitet och utnämndes 1894 till guvernör i Novgorod och två år senare i Jaroslavl. Därefter innehade han en rad höga poster inom rysk förvaltning och tjänstgjorde bland annat på inrikesministeriet under Vjatjeslav von Plehve. Stürmer var konservativ, hängiven anhängare till monarkin och stod hovets gunstling Grigorij Rasputin nära. I januari 1916 utsågs han till premiärminister och var samtidigt, från mars, inrikesminister och, från juli, utrikesminister. Stürmers regering var mycket impopuär och i november höll Pavel Miljukov, ledaren för kadettpartiet, ett beryktat tal i duman där han anklagade Stürmer för högförräderi och samarbete med Tyskland. Frågan var mycket känslig mot bakgrund av hans tyskklingande efternamn och det pågående Första världskriget. Efter anklagelsen, som Miljukov senare erkände var helt grundlös, krävde Stürmer att tsar Nikolaj II skulle upplösa duman. Men efter fortsatt hård kritik mot regeringen och ytterligare motgångar i kriget tvingades tsaren istället att avskeda Stürmer den 19 november och ersätta honom med den mer liberalt sinnade Aleksandr Trepov. Efter februarirevolutionen 1917 arresterades Stürmer av den provisoriska regeringen och sattes i fängelse i Peter-Paulfästningen där han avled i september.


Mládí Editovat

Narodil se do rodiny velkostatkáře v Bežecku v Tverské oblasti. Jeho otec byl vysloužilý kapitán kavalerie ruské armády.

Absolvoval právnickou fakultu na Petrohradské univerzitě. Roku 1894 se stal novgorodským gubernátorem a v roce 1896 gubernátorem Jaroslavli. Navzdory pověstem o špatném finančním hospodaření se Stürmer stal jedním z nejdůvěryhodnějších byrokratů pod vedením Vjačeslava von Pleve a v roce 1904 byl přijat do státní rady. Po Pleveho smrti se Stürmer chtěl stát jeho nástupcem, mandát však získal kníže Pjotr Svjatopolk-Mirskij.

Větší šance na postup získal roku 1913, kdy byl nominován na starostu Moskvy. Kandidatura byla neúspěšná. V té době se začal sbližovat se šarlatánem Rasputinem.

Během první světové války se Stürmer stal ministerským předsedou. Současně působil ve funkci ministra vnitra (od března 1916) a zahraničí (od července).

Stürmeova vláda byla hluboce neoblíbená. Byl podezřelý z reakcionářství a germanofilství. Jeho nešťastný pokus o odvádění neruských branců do armády vyvolal krvavé kyrgyzské povstání známé jako Urkun. Po Brusilovově ofenzívě se Stürmer pokusil domluvit s Němci separátní mír. Dne 1. listopadu 1916 prohlásil Pavel Miljukov ve státní Dumě, že „Stürmerova politika se projevila jako hloupost a zrada“. Car opravdu připustil, že si Stürmerovo počínání představoval jinak a 19. listopadu byl Stürmer odvolán.

Po rezignaci kandidoval na předsedu v páté Dumě.

V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku Boris Stürmer na anglické Wikipedii.


1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Stürmer, Boris Vladimirovich

STURMER, BORIS VLADIMIROVICH (1849-1917), Russian politician, was born in 1849, the son of an emigrant—his father being captain of a fire brigade at Tula. He studied at the university of Petrograd, and there made friends with Count Bobrinsky, a member of one of the leading Russian families, who introduced him into the upper circle of Petrograd society. His affable manners and his ability to win the confidence of important people are the only explanation of his brilliant success in a circle to which he did not belong by birth or fortune. He started his career in the Chamberlain's department of the Imperial Court, but he held at the same time different situations in the Senate, the Ministry of Justice and elsewhere. When in 1892 the Government rejected the candidate nominated to the presidency of the executive board of the Tver Zemstvo, Stürmer, whose name was on the list of the Tver gentry, was appointed to this office. It was the first case of a president of the Zemstvo being appointed instead of being elected. In 1894 Stürmer was appointed governor of the Novgorod, and later of the Iaroslavl province. Subsequently he was in charge of a department of the Home Office. In 1904 he was created member of the State Council, but he never took an active part in the legislative work. Meanwhile he won the confidence of the Court, and he was made prime minister in Jan. 1916, at a period when the Emperor, avoiding strong personalities, wished to secure the fulfilment of his orders by devoted servants. As prime minister Stürmer's reactionary attitude provoked a strong opposition in liberal and patriotic circles rumours accusing him of connexions with Germany were widely spread without real proof. These accusations were finally brought to the tribune of the Duma by M. Milyukov and resulted in Stürmer's resignation in November. After Sazonov's dismissal Stürmer took the portfolio of Foreign Affairs, and his activities in this department resulted in the premature declaration of war by Rumania, so disastrous for that country and for Russia. He was arrested after the revolution, and he died in prison of disease in Sept. 1917.


Contents

Stürmer was born into a landowning family in Baykovo, Kesovogorsky District, Tver Governorate. His father Vladimir Vilgelmovich Stürmer was a retired Captain of Cavalry in the Imperial Russian Army. His mother was Ermoniya Panina.

As an honorary graduate of the Faculty of Law, Saint Petersburg State University in 1872, Stürmer entered the Ministry of Justice, the Governing Senate and the Interior Ministry. He was appointed in 1879 as Master of the Bedchamer at the Russian Imperial Court. Stürmer gained a reputation as "a great connoisseur of all sorts, especially diplomatic ceremonies". [ this quote needs a citation ] However, in the early 1890s his career took a completely unexpected turn.

Governor

In 1891 he became chairman of the district council in Tver. As an unquestionably talented [ according to whom? ] administrator an appointment as Governor of Novgorod in 1894 and Yaroslavl in 1896 followed. Stürmer proved himself as a master of political compromise he avoided any clash with Zemstvo, being patient. [2] In a very delicate situation he "maneuvered quite well". He "declared himself a conservative not out of fear but out of conscience." [3] Despite recurrent rumors of financial mismanagement [ citation needed ] , Stürmer became one of the most trusted administrators. In 1902 Vyacheslav von Plehve, the Minister of Interior, appointed him as director at the Ministry of Internal Affairs. After Plehve was killed, Stürmer was willing to succeed. The Tsar even signed a ukase to that effect, yet the post eventually went to Prince Svyatopolk-Mirsky. Stürmer was then admitted into the State Council of Imperial Russia in 1904. This appointment was "absolutely exceptional example in the history of Russian bureaucracy." After Bloody Sunday (1905) again Stürmer was mentioned to become Minister of Interior. Stürmer became close friends with Bobrinsky. He dreamed of "autocracy, located in combination with the constitutional regime." Stürmer was one of those representatives of the bureaucratic elite, who preferred to distance themselves from the extreme right. He enjoyed enormous prestige not only at the right but also from his left-wing colleagues. Few members of the Council of State could boast of such a relationship with the monarch.

In the State Council, he supported Pyotr Stolypin and his closest collaborators on agrarian reform, land management and agriculture Chief Governor Alexander Krivoshein "in their endeavors in the field of devices peasants." Stürmer, being a dualist, opposed, on one hand, the Black Hundreds, speaking for unlimited autocracy, and the other - the Octobrists and the Kadets, to practice the idea of parliamentarism. Stürmer believed that the division of bureaucrats on the right and liberals required a very cautious attitude.

In the 1913 countrywide celebrations of the tercentenary of the Romanov Dynasty, he accompanied the Tsar and his family on a journey to Tver. In autumn of the same year he was appointed as mayor of Moscow as the candidate from the left was unacceptable. Stürmer seemed to be the right man to solve the problems in 1914 when the Progressive Bloc was formed, and called for a responsible government. He became a member of the Domestic Patriotic Union (OPS) - a moderately right-monarchist organization, founded in 1915. In November 1915 it was proposed the old Goremykin should be replaced by Alexei Khvostov. Though on 18 January 1916 the Tsar invited Stürmer to discuss the possibility of a new job.

Prime minister

Stürmer petitioned Tsar Nicholas II to sanction the change of his German surname to Panin. [4] Since the Panins were a distinguished family of Russian nobility, the monarch could not agree to Stürmer's request until he had consulted all members of the Panin family. The Tsarina and Grigori Rasputin had the opinion it was not necessary for Stürmer to change his name. Pending these proceedings, Stürmer was appointed Prime Minister on 20 January 1916, following the 76-year-old Ivan Goremykin, who was opposed to the convening of the Duma. Nicholas ordered the new prime minister to "take all measures" to ensure that "the government avoided any conflicts with the State Duma," and gave "specific instructions" to "improve relations between the government and the Romanovs."

On the eve of the opening of the Duma Prime Minister told Rodzianko that "the government is ready to make a concession to the Progressive Bloc, provided that the unit itself is also ready to make compromises." It was a shift to the left they expected he would launch a more liberal and conciliatory politics. He would make every effort to get in touch and come to terms with the public." [5] The Duma gathered on 9 February 1916. The deputies were disappointed when Stürmer held his speech, as the politicians tried to bring the government under control of the Duma. [6] Because of the war it was not the time for constitutional reforms. [ citation needed ] For the first time in his life, the Tsar had made a visit to the Tauride Palace, which made it practically impossible to hiss at the new prime minister.

"As Director of his Secretariat Sturmer selected Manassievich Manuilov. This choice, which is regarded as scandalous, is significant." [7] "The extreme right-wing deputy (A.I. Savenko, a leader of the Black Hundreds) could declare at the session of the Duma on February 29, 1916:

What a terrible thing it is for the country that, during the time of the greatest trials experienced by our fatherland, the country does not trust the government no one trusts the government, even the right does not trust the government – in fact the government does not trust itself and is not sure about tomorrow. [8]

A strongly prevailing opinion that Rasputin was the actual ruler of the country was of great psychological importance. [9] Alexei Khvostov and Iliodor concocted a plan to kill Rasputin. Khvostov created the rumour suggesting that Alexandra and Rasputin were German agents or spies. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] Evidence that Rasputin actually worked for the Germans is flimsy at best. [15] [16] [17] Rather paranoid, Rasputin went to Alexander Spiridovich, head of the palace police, on 1 March. He was constantly in a state of nervous excitement. Khvostov had to resign within a week and Boris Stürmer was appointed in his place. In the same month Minister of War Alexei Polivanov, who in his few months of office had brought about a recovery of the efficiency of the Russian army, was removed and replaced by Dmitry Shuvayev. In two months of office Stürmer has succeeded in making the public want Goremykin back. [18] According to Maurice Paléologue he had a taste for history, particularly the anecdotal and picturesque side of history. [19] Again according to Paléologue Stürmer consulted Anna Vyrubova about everything. [20]

From then everything went down, according to Alexei Khvostov. For War Minister Alexei Polivanov - who both had to leave politics in March 1916 - it was the beginning of the end. [21] Stürmer took over the Ministry of Interior. After he was simultaneously acting as Minister of the Interior and Minister of Foreign Affairs, he was regarded by Rodzianko as a "dictator with full powers". Under his administration the country suffered drastic inflation and a transportation breakdown, which led to severe food shortages. [22] Russia's economy, which had been growing until the beginning of the Great War, was now declining at a very rapid rate. Stürmer was inclined to peace negotiations [23] and his German name was regarded as an advantage. The Polish question seemed to be the best weapon for a reconciliation with Germany. [24] In June the Tsar had to decide on the question of Polish autonomy. The Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Sazonov, who had pleaded for an independent and autonomous Congress Poland, was replaced on 23 July. ("Sturmer is secretly carrying on a very active campaign against him." [25] ) They disagreed on too many questions. "After Sazonov's dismissal Stürmer took the portfolio of Foreign Affairs the Emperor had ordered him to conduct the foreign policy of the Empire on the same principles as before, i.e., in the closest co-operation with the Allied Governments. His activities in this department resulted in the premature declaration of war by Romania, so disastrous for that country and for Russia." [26] In July Aleksandr Khvostov, not in good health, was appointed as Minister of Interior. (After the Brusilov Offensive Romania joined the Allies in August and attacked Transylvania.) In September Alexander Protopopov, had been appointed as his successor. Protopopov, an industrialist and landowner, raised the question of transferring the food supply from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of the Interior. A majority of the zemstvo leaders announced that they would not work with his ministry. His food plan was universally condemned. [27] In October Vladimir Sukhomlinov was released from prison on instigation of Alexandra, Rasputin and Protopopov. (On 24 October (O.S) the Kingdom of Poland was established by its occupiers.) This time the public was outraged [28] and the opposition parties decided to attack Stürmer, his government and the "Dark forces". [29] For them Stürmer simply let matters drift. [30] The opposition parties decided to attack Stürmer, his government and the "Dark forces". [31] Since Stürmer has been in power Rasputin's authority has greatly increased. For the liberals in the parliament, Grigori Rasputin, who believed in autocracy and absolute monarchy, was one of the main obstacles.

Downfall

On 1 November Pavel Milyukov, concluding that Stürmer's policies placed in jeopardy the Triple Entente, delivered his famous "stupidity or treason" speech at the Imperial Duma, which had not been gathering since February. [32] He highlighted numerous governmental failures. Alexander Kerensky called the ministers "hired assassins" and "cowards" and said they were "guided by the contemptible Grishka Rasputin!" [33] Stürmer, followed by all his ministers, walked out. [27] Grand Duke Alexander and his brother George Mikhailovich requested the Tsar to fire Stürmer. Even the Tsar had to concede that Stürmer was as much of a red rag to the parliament as to everyone else. [34] On 10 November he was sacked. It appeared to Maurice Paléologue, the French ambassador, he was a broken man. [35] Following his resignation, Stürmer ran for a seat in the Fourth Duma. He was arrested by the Russian Provisional Government after the February Revolution in 1917 and died of uremia in September at the hospital of the Peter and Paul Fortress (or the Kresty Prison).


Contents

Stürmer was born into a landowning family in Baykovo, Kesovogorsky District, Tver Governorate. His father Vladimir Vilgelmovich Stürmer was of German descent and a retired Captain of Cavalry in the Imperial Russian Army. His mother was Ermoniya Panina.

A graduate of the Faculty of Law, Saint Petersburg State University in 1872, Stürmer entered the Ministry of Justice, the Governing Senate and the Interior Ministry. He was appointed in 1879 as Master of the Bedchamer at the Russian Imperial Court.

Governor [ edit ]

In 1891 he became chairman of the district council in Tver. An appointment as Governor of Novgorod in 1894 and Yaroslavl in 1896 followed. Stürmer avoided any clash with the Zemstvo, remaining patient. Ώ] ΐ] In a very delicate situation he declared himself a "conservative not out of fear but out of conscience." Α]

In 1902 Vyacheslav von Plehve, the Minister of Interior, appointed him as Director of the Department of General Affairs at the Ministry of Interior. After Plehve was killed, Stürmer was willing to succeed. The Tsar even signed a ukase to that effect, yet the post eventually went to Prince Svyatopolk-Mirsky. Stürmer was then admitted into the State Council of Imperial Russia in 1904. This appointment was "absolutely exceptional example in the history of Russian bureaucracy." After Bloody Sunday (1905) again Stürmer was mentioned to become Minister of Interior. Stürmer became close friends with Bobrinsky. He dreamed of "autocracy, located in combination with the constitutional regime." Stürmer was one of those representatives of the bureaucratic elite, who preferred to distance themselves from the extreme right. Few members of the Council of State could boast of such a relationship with the monarch.

In the State Council, he supported Pyotr Stolypin and his closest collaborators on agrarian reform, land management and agriculture Chief Governor Alexander Krivoshein "in their endeavors in the field of devices peasants." Stürmer, being a dualist, opposed, on one hand, the Black Hundreds, speaking for unlimited autocracy, and the other - the Octobrists and the Kadets, to practice the idea of parliamentarism. Stürmer believed that the division of bureaucrats on the right and liberals required a very cautious attitude.

In the 1913 countrywide celebrations of the tercentenary of the Romanov Dynasty, he accompanied the Tsar and his family on a journey to Tver. In autumn of the same year he was appointed as mayor of Moscow as the candidate from the left was unacceptable to the Tsar. He became a member of the Domestic Patriotic Union (OPS) - a moderately right-monarchist organization, founded in 1915. In November 1915 it was proposed the old Goremykin should be replaced by Alexei Khvostov. Though on 18 January 1916 the Tsar invited Stürmer to discuss the possibility of a new job.

Prime minister [ edit ]

Stürmer petitioned Tsar Nicholas II to sanction the change of his German surname to Panin. Β] Since the Panins were a distinguished family of Russian nobility, the monarch could not agree to Stürmer's request until he had consulted all members of the Panin family. The Tsarina and Grigori Rasputin had the opinion it was not necessary for Stürmer to change his name. Pending these proceedings, Stürmer was appointed Prime Minister on 20 January 1916, following the 76-year-old Ivan Goremykin, who was opposed to the convening of the Duma. Nicholas ordered the new prime minister to "take all measures" to ensure that "the government avoided any conflicts with the State Duma," and gave "specific instructions" to "improve relations between the government and the Romanovs."

On the eve of the opening of the Duma, the Prime Minister told Rodzianko that "the government is ready to make a concession to the Progressive Bloc, provided that the unit itself is also ready to make compromises." It was a shift to the left they expected he would launch a more liberal and conciliatory politics. Α] The Duma gathered on 9 February 1916. The deputies were disappointed when Stürmer held his speech, as the politicians tried to bring the government under control of the Duma. Γ] For the first time in his life, the Tsar had made a visit to the Tauride Palace, which made it practically impossible to hiss at the new prime minister.

"As Director of his Secretariat Sturmer selected Manassievich Manuilov. This choice, which is regarded as scandalous, is significant." Δ] "The extreme right-wing deputy (A.I. Savenko, a leader of the Black Hundreds) could declare at the session of the Duma on February 29, 1916:

What a terrible thing it is for the country that, during the time of the greatest trials experienced by our fatherland, the country does not trust the government no one trusts the government, even the right does not trust the government – in fact the government does not trust itself and is not sure about tomorrow. Ε]

A strongly prevailing opinion that Rasputin was the actual ruler of the country was of great psychological importance. Ζ] Alexei Khvostov and Iliodor concocted a plan to kill Rasputin. Khvostov created the rumour suggesting that Alexandra and Rasputin were German agents or spies. Η] ⎖] ⎗] ⎘] ⎙] Evidence that Rasputin actually worked for the Germans is flimsy at best. ⎚] ⎛] ⎜] Rather paranoid, Rasputin went to Alexander Spiridovich, head of the palace police, on 1 March. He was constantly in a state of nervous excitement. Khvostov had to resign within a week and Boris Stürmer was appointed in his place. In the same month Minister of War Alexei Polivanov, who in his few months of office had brought about a recovery of the efficiency of the Russian army, was removed and replaced by Dmitry Shuvayev. Because the stresses of war on an inefficient government and at random politics, bureaucracy, zemstvos--> In two months of office Stürmer succeeded in making the public want Goremykin back. ⎝] According to Maurice Paléologue he had a taste for history, particularly the anecdotal and picturesque side of history. ⎞] Again according to Paléologue Stürmer consulted Anna Vyrubova about everything. ⎝] The French ambassador was aghast, depicting Stürmer as "worse than a mediocrity – a third rate intellect, mean spirit, low character, doubtful honesty, no experience, and no idea of state business." ⎟]

From then everything went down, according to Alexei Khvostov. For War Minister Alexei Polivanov - who both had to leave politics in March 1916 - it was the beginning of the end. ⎠] Stürmer took over the Ministry of Interior. After he was simultaneously acting as Minister of the Interior and Minister of Foreign Affairs, he was regarded by Rodzianko as a "dictator with full powers". Under his administration the country suffered drastic inflation and a transportation breakdown, which led to severe food shortages. ⎡] Russia's economy, which had been growing until the beginning of the Great War, was now declining at a very rapid rate. Stürmer was inclined to peace negotiations ⎢] but his appointment was received with consternation, as an open affront to the whole nation. ⎣] In June the Tsar had to decide on the question of Polish autonomy. Stürmer and most of his colleagues were more hostile to the idea than ever. ⎤] --> The Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Sazonov, who had pleaded for an independent and autonomous Congress Poland, was replaced on 23 July. ("Sturmer is secretly carrying on a very active campaign against him." ⎞] ) They disagreed on too many questions. "After Sazonov's dismissal Stürmer took the portfolio of Foreign Affairs the Emperor had ordered him to conduct the foreign policy of the Empire on the same principles as before, i.e., in the closest co-operation with the Allied Governments. His activities in this department resulted in the premature declaration of war by Romania, so disastrous for that country and for Russia." ⎥] In July Aleksandr Khvostov, not in good health, was appointed as Minister of Interior. (After the Brusilov Offensive Romania joined the Allies in August and attacked Transylvania.) In September Alexander Protopopov, had been appointed as his successor. Protopopov, an industrialist and landowner, raised the question of transferring the food supply from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of the Interior. A majority of the zemstvo leaders announced that they would not work with his ministry. His food plan was universally condemned. ⎦] In October Vladimir Sukhomlinov was released from prison on instigation of Alexandra, Rasputin and Protopopov. (On 24 October (O.S) the Kingdom of Poland was established by its occupiers.) This time the public was outraged ⎧] and the opposition parties decided to attack Stürmer, his government and the "Dark forces". ⎨] ⎩] For them Stürmer simply let matters drift. ⎪] The opposition parties decided to attack Stürmer, his government and the "Dark forces". ⎫] Since Stürmer has been in power Rasputin's authority has greatly increased. For the liberals in the parliament, Grigori Rasputin, who believed in autocracy and absolute monarchy, was one of the main obstacles.

Downfall [ edit ]

On 1 November, Pavel Milyukov, concluding that Stürmer's policies placed in jeopardy the Triple Entente, delivered his famous "stupidity or treason" speech at the Imperial Duma, which had not been gathering since February. ⎬] He highlighted numerous governmental failures. Alexander Kerensky called the ministers "hired assassins" and "cowards" and said they were "guided by the contemptible Grishka Rasputin!" ⎭] Stürmer, followed by all his ministers, walked out. ⎦] Grand Duke Alexander and his brother Grand Duke George requested the Tsar to fire Stürmer. Even the Tsar had to concede that Stürmer was as much of a red rag to the parliament as to everyone else. ⎮] On 10 November he was sacked, the foreign ministry was temporarily led by his deputy Anatoly Neratov. It appeared to Maurice Paléologue, the French ambassador, Stürmer was a broken man. ⎯] Following his resignation, Stürmer ran for a seat in the Fourth Duma.

He was arrested by the Russian Provisional Government after the February Revolution in 1917 and died of uremia in September at the hospital of the Peter and Paul Fortress (or the Kresty Prison).


Boris Vladimirovich striker

Boris Vladimirovich striker ( Russian Борис Владимирович Штюрмер * July 16 . Jul / July 28, 1848 greg. In Saint Petersburg , † 2 September 1917 in Petrograd ) was a Russian of German descent statesman and until November 10 jul. / November 23, 1916 greg. Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior and Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire.

Stürmer first worked in the Ministry of Justice from 1872, after which he worked as governor general of Tver (1892), Nizhny Novgorod (1894) and Yaroslavl (1896-1902). In 1904 he became a member of the State Council , his appointment as Minister of the Interior failed for the time being in 1904 or 1909.

The fact that Stürmer also took over the office of interior minister after his appointment as prime minister is less unusual than the fact that he also became foreign minister from July 1916 after Sasonov's dismissal. In the political system of tsarist Russia, the prime minister normally did not have any authority in foreign policy. Like the Prime Minister, the Foreign Minister was appointed directly by the Tsar - although the Foreign Minister was a member of the Council of Ministers, he did not report to the Prime Minister. Striker was the only (first and last) Prime Minister of the Russian Empire who was also Foreign Minister at the same time. Despite Romania's entry into the First World War , which he forced , he acted haplessly.

Stürmer was sponsored by Empress Alexandra and Rasputin , on whose behalf Stürmer is said to have explored ways to end the war or even a separate peace with Germany, which ultimately became the pretext for his overthrow. The business of government was forward to Trepov from that office as foreign minister led first Deputy Foreign Minister Neratov on. Stürmer had been imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress since the February Revolution of 1917 , where he died before the high treason trial against him was over.


Boris Stürmer

Stürmer var utbildad jurist från Sankt Petersburgs universitet och utnämndes 1894 till guvernör i Novgorod och två år senare i Jaroslavl. Därefter innehade han en rad höga poster inom rysk förvaltning och tjänstgjorde bland annat på inrikesministeriet under Vjatjeslav von Plehve. Stürmer var konservativ, hängiven anhängare till monarkin och stod hovets gunstling Grigorij Rasputin nära. I januari 1916 utsågs han till premiärminister och var samtidigt, från mars, inrikesminister och, från juli, utrikesminister. Stürmers regering var mycket impopuär och i november höll Pavel Miljukov, ledaren för kadettpartiet, ett beryktat tal i duman där han anklagade Stürmer för högförräderi och samarbete med Tyskland. Frågan var mycket känslig mot bakgrund av hans tyskklingande efternamn och det pågående Första världskriget. Efter anklagelsen, som Miljukov senare erkände var helt grundlös, krävde Stürmer att tsar Nikolaj II skulle upplösa duman. Men efter fortsatt hård kritik mot regeringen och ytterligare motgångar i kriget tvingades tsaren istället att avskeda Stürmer den 19 november och ersätta honom med den mer liberalt sinnade Aleksandr Trepov. Efter februarirevolutionen 1917 arresterades Stürmer av den provisoriska regeringen och sattes i fängelse i Peter-Paulfästningen där han avled i september.


Boris Stürmer -->

Stürmer aloitti virkauransa vuonna 1872 Venäjän oikeusministeriöstä, josta hän siirtyi myöhemmin hoviministeriöön. Vuodesta 1892 hän toimi kuvernöörinä Tverissä, Novgorodissa sekä Jaroslavlissa. Hän sai 1888 kamariherran ja 1896 hovimestarin arvon. Stürmer nimitettiin 1902 sisäministeriön osastopäälliköksi ja hänestä tuli sisäministeri Vjatᘞslav von Plehwen läheinen apulainen. Plehwen murhan (1904) jälkeen Stürmer vetäytyi pitkäksi aikaa aktiivisesta viranhoidosta ja toimi valtakunnanneuvoston jäsenenä. [2]

Suhteellisen vähän tunnettu Stürmer nimitettiin Venäjän pääministeriksi 2. helmikuuta 1916 keisarinna Aleksandran ja munkki Rasputinin tuella, joista hän oli koko virkakautensa ajan riippuvainen. Keisari Nikolai II johti sodankäyntiä rintaman lähellä ja oli sivussa hallitustoimista. Maaliskuussa Stürmer sai hoidettavakseen samanaikaisesi myös sisäministerin ja heinäkuussa vielä ulkoministerinkin tehtävät. Venäjä kärsi tuolloin inflaatiosta sekä elintarvikepulasta. Stürmerillä ei ollut omaa selkeää linjaa pääministerinä ja häntä on pidetty epäpätevänä tehtäviinsä. Häntä epäiltiin myös saksalaismieliseksi ja marraskuussa 1916 kokoontunut duuma esitti avoimesti syytöksiä häntä vastaan. [1] Kadettipuolueen johtaja Pavel Miljukov syytti Stürmeria valtiosalaisuuksien paljastamisesta viholliselle ja Rasputinin kaltaisten ”pimeiden voimien” myötäilystä. [2] Stürmer menetetti nyt myös keisarinnan ja Rasputinin tuen ja erosi lopulta tehtävistään 23. (10.) marraskuuta. [1]

Helmikuun vallankumouksen jälkeen väliaikainen hallitus pidätti Stürmerin ja hänet vangittiin Pietari-Paavalin linnoitukseen. Häntä vastaan valmisteltiin oikeudenkäyntiä valtiopetoksesta, mutta hän kuoli vankeudessa ennen kuin prosessia ehdittiin aloittaa. [1]


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