21 February 1942

21 February 1942


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21 February 1942

February

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>March

Technology

First flight of the Spitfire Mk IX

Burma

British troops retreat across the Sittang River



Brownwood Bulletin (Brownwood, Tex.), Vol. 41, No. 128, Ed. 1 Saturday, February 21, 1942

Daily newspaper from Brownwood, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

six pages : ill. page 26 x 21 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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Creator: Unknown. February 21, 1942.

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This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Brownwood Bulletin and was provided by the Brownwood Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 17 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

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  • Main Title: Brownwood Bulletin (Brownwood, Tex.), Vol. 41, No. 128, Ed. 1 Saturday, February 21, 1942
  • Serial Title:Brownwood Bulletin
  • Added Title: Brownwood (Texas) Bulletin

Description

Daily newspaper from Brownwood, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

six pages : ill. page 26 x 21 in.
Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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  • Library of Congress Control Number: sn86090521
  • OCLC: 14247616 | External Link
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metapth1101602

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  • Volume: 41
  • Issue: 128
  • Edition: 1

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This issue is part of the following collections of related materials.

Brownwood Bulletin

Will Mayes began publishing the daily paper in 1900 after purchasing the two 19th century weeklies, the Brownwood Banner and the Brownwood Bulletin. The paper continues to serve Brownwood to this day.

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Events on February 27th

  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 West Brom v Brighton at The Hawthorns
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Spurs v Burnley at Tottenham Hotspur Stadium
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Sheffield Utd v Liverpool at Bramall Lane
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Newcastle v Wolves at St. James' Park
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Man City v West Ham at Etihad Stadium
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Leicester v Arsenal at King Power Stadium
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Leeds v Aston Villa at Elland Road
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Everton v Southampton at Goodison Park
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Crystal Palace v Fulham at Selhurst Park
  • football fixtures English Premier League 2020/21 - Round 26 Chelsea v Man Utd at Stamford Bridge
  • rugby fixtures Premiership Rugby 2020/21 - Round 11 Wasps v London Irish at Ricoh Arena
  • rugby fixtures Premiership Rugby 2020/21 - Round 11 Sale Sharks v Exeter Chiefs at AJ Bell Stadium
  • rugby fixtures Premiership Rugby 2020/21 - Round 11 Newcastle Falcons v Harlequins at Kingston Park
  • rugby fixtures Premiership Rugby 2020/21 - Round 11 Gloucester Rugby v Worcester Warriors at Kingsholm
  • rugby fixtures Premiership Rugby 2020/21 - Round 11 Bristol Bears v Leicester Tigers at Ashton Gate
  • entertainment Derren Brown was born on 27th February 1971 in London, England
  • sports Sir Don Bradman was born on 27th February 1908 in Cootamundra, Australia
  • author John Steinbeck was born on 27th February 1902 in Salinas, USA
  • Want to add an event to this page? Use the Facebook comment box to add yours now!

Currently viewing: How long since February 27th 1832? Find out how long since any other date from our home page!


Crime History, Feb. 21, 1942: German spy sentenced to firing squad for role in attack on Pearl Harbor

On this day, Feb. 21, in 1942, Pearl Harbor spy Bernard Julius Otto Kuehn was found guilty of espionage and sentenced to be executed by firing squad in Honolulu.

Kuehn, a German national and member of the Nazi party, was a sleeper agent sent to Hawaii in 1935 by famed German propagandist Joseph Goebbels.

In 1941, Kuehn met with a Japanese spy and provided a code that the German agent used to flash at passing war ships and submarines. The system included a series of blinking lights, fires and laundry hanging on clothes lines.

Five days before the attack, Kuehn sent a message to the Japanese describing every American ship in Hawaiian waters.

On Dec. 7, 1941, the Japanese launched a devastating sneak attack on the United States Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. More than 20 ships were sunk or damaged, 188 plans were destroyed, and 156 were damaged. American dead numbered 2,403.

The attack led to the United States’ entry into World War II.

The day after the attack, Kuehn was arrested attempting to send more messages back to the Japanese from his cottage.

He was tried and sentenced to death by a military commission. His sentence was commuted to 50 years of hard labor when he volunteered valuable information about his Japanese and Nazi contacts. Kuehn was released after serving 4 years.


White Rose Resistance to Hitler's Regime, 1942-1943

The students were certainly successful in acting within their highest moral standards despite the slim chances of succeeding, but they were not successful in spreading widespread opposition to the regime.

Although one member of the White Rose survived the war, the campaign ended when Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl, and Christoph Probst were executed.

Although the campaign was generally unsuccessful, it did grow within Munich and then expand to other cities in Germany. What started as a group of two or three students turned into a campaign of about three hundred students.

Database Narrative

Amidst the omnipresence of violence during World War II, nonviolent protest is often overlooked or unheard of. However, there were several resistance campaigns that took place in Germany, led by its own citizens. One such campaign in the period of 1942-1943 was the resistance initiated by the White Rose society. Although they were ultimately unsuccessful, the members of the White Rose became an influential example of student resistance against repressive regimes.

The main leaders of the campaign, Hans Scholl, Alex Schmorell, and Sophie Scholl, were not all anti-Nazi throughout their entire lives. Schmorell’s family was always opposed to the Nazi regime, but the young Scholls had originally believed in Hitler’s values and even joined the Hitler Youth despite their father’s disapproval. Gradually, Hans and Sophie began to sympathize with their father’s views of the regime, especially when they observed harsh treatment and dehumanization of their Jewish friends. Breaking off from the common theory that citizens should support their troops in war no matter what the circumstances, the young Scholl siblings thought that it was the duty of citizens to stand up against what they perceived as an evil regime, even in wartime, especially when it was killing such a huge quantity of its own citizens. Hans tried to alter the direction of the movement from within the Hitler Youth, but was immediately thrown out and even sent to court.

Organized resistance was essentially out of the question since the Gestapo was permitted to listen to any phone call, open any mail, or search anyone’s person, all without reason. Speaking openly and honestly with friends was also rare, since people never knew who was a Nazi spy, or which one of their friends or neighbors would turn them in. This is not to suggest that opposition of the regime was nonexistent on the contrary, we now know that there were over three hundred citizens who openly disagreed with the Nazi mindset, but groups of them were so small and isolated that it was difficult to know of each other and therefore initiate a larger movement.

George Wittenstein, another member of the White Rose, and Alex Schmorell met in 1938 on an obligatory two-year army service where they were in the same training school for medics. By 1939, most of the members of the White Rose were enrolled at the University of Munich. However, shortly after the war started, most of the medical students were drafted and required to attend classes in uniform. It was in this student company that Wittenstein introduced Schmorell and Hans Scholl.

Within the first couple of months at the University of Munich, Hans Scholl created a group of intellectual medicine students that convened at nights to talk about cultural subjects, and would even invite professors, writers, and musicians to come lecture to the group. This group, which had fostered deep friendships through similarities in profound subjects beyond the common interest in medicine, initially avoided the topic of politics altogether. However, as the regime became increasingly oppressive, the group realized the necessity of taking action.

In the early summer of 1942, Hans Scholl and Alex Schmorell wrote the first four of six opposition leaflets, called the “Leaves of the White Rose.” These leaflets attacked the Nazi regime and mentioned its crimes, from the mass extermination of Jews, to the dictatorship and the elimination of the personal freedoms of Germany’s citizens. Furthermore, it called the Nazi regime evil, and called for Germans to rise up and resist the oppression of their government. The leaflets also contained quotes from great philosophers and highly esteemed writers, demonstrating how they were clearly aimed at the intellectual public, and especially students and professors. At the bottom of the leaflets was the phrase, “Please make as many copies of this leaflet as you can and distribute them.”

The “Leaves of the White Rose” were left in telephone boxes, mailed to students and professors throughout Germany, and brought by train to spread the White Rose’s beliefs to other regions of the country. Since traveling on trains with such dangerous documents was extremely risky, females began to take on the responsibility of distributing leaflets to other cities because they were less likely to be searched by the Gestapo. Of the first hundred leaflets that the students mailed, thirty-five were given to the Gestapo. However, many of the pamphlets successfully arrived at their destinations, and some even showed up in different parts of Austria.

All four leaflets were written in a relatively short time period, between June 27 and July 12. As far as is known today, Hans Scholl wrote the first and fourth leaflets, while Alex Schmorell wrote the second and third ones. George Wittenstein edited the third and fourth leaflets. The “Leaves of the White Rose” caused a remarkable reaction among the student body, for this resistance literature challenged the regime’s authority and stimulated ideas of opposition among young people.

Sophie Scholl enrolled in the University of Munich shortly following the creation of the first leaflets, and soon learned about the White Rose society. Although Hans originally opposed her participation in the group in an attempt to defend her, he eventually surrendered and allowed her to join. Sophie soon became one of the main leaders of the group. A mutual friend of Hans and Sophie, Christoph Probst, also joined the White Rose around this time, but did not help write the leaflets since he had transferred to the University of Innsbruck.

In the later months of the summer, the University did not know what to do with the medical students they had drafted so they sent them to the Russian front for 3 months to experience medical care under fire, and to work as physician assistants in field hospitals. During this time, Willi Graf, another medical student, befriended Hans and Alex and became an active member of the group once they returned to the University in November. After seeing the treatment of the Russians, the members of the White Rose understood that the only way Germany could be saved was by losing the war, a difficult realization for the students who truly did love their homeland. Once they returned to Germany, their energy increased and they began writing their next leaflet.

When the group returned, their main objective was to increase the size of their campaign and to find willing participants at other universities to continue to spread the group’s message. By this point, bombings over Germany began to take place, and the citizens felt the effects of war thus, they were slightly more willing to voice their opinions against the regime. Around this time, Kurt Huber, a professor of philosophy, psychology, and musicology at the University of Munich joined the campaign.

Although the pamphlets were the main method of opposition by the White Rose, on February 4, 8, and 15, they painted huge slogans on walls throughout Munich, including at the university. The graffiti was short and simple with statements such as: “Freedom!” “Down with Hitler!” and “Hitler the Mass Murderer!”

The fall of Stalingrad in February 1943 was a great turning point in the war and inspired Huber to write the fifth leaflet at the request of Hans. The group accepted the draft, making only minor changes, and sent it out between February 16 and 18. This leaflet took a different tone and was now entitled “Leaflets of the Resistance Movement of Germany,” as was the sixth and final leaflet.

While furious Nazi officials tried to clear away the unexpected call for freedom and justice, the rebellion began to spread, first by jumping to Berlin. A medical student who was friends with Hans took the responsibility of forming a similar resistance group there and brought copies of the leaflets that the group wrote. Inspired by the courage of the White Rose, students also decided to become active in Freiburg. Later, a female student carried a leaflet to Hamburg where yet another group of students took up the responsibility of spreading the resistance even further.

The sixth leaflet was the final one written. On February 18, 1943, Hans and Sophie went to the university with a large suitcase filled with leaflets to distribute. They placed stacks in the hallways minutes before lectures were dismissed, but there were still extra leaflets when finished. Consequently, Hans and Sophie went to the roof and dumped the rest of the suitcase into the court. The two nearly went unnoticed, but were observed by a senior janitor at the university who locked the doors of the building and turned them over to the Gestapo. When a draft of a leaflet that Christoph Probst had written was found in Hans’ pocket, Probst was arrested as well. Within a few days, over eighty people were arrested throughout Germany, some executed and some sent to concentration camps.

On February 22, 1943, a “People’s Court” was opened in Munich and after a trial that lasted barely four hours, Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl, and Christoph Probst were convicted of high treason and sentenced to death. The presiding Judge, Roland Freisler, who had been sent from Berlin, could not understand what had corrupted these German youths. After all, they came from good families, attended German schools, and had been members of the Hitler Youth. Sophie shocked everyone in the courtroom with her response: “Somebody, after all, had to make a start. What we wrote and said is also believed by many others. They just don’t dare to express themselves as we did. You know that war is lost. Why don’t you have the courage to face it?”

Hans’ and Sophie’s parents were denied entrance to the trial. However, once escorted back to the prison, the guards permitted the Scholls to reunite for the last time since the guards were so impressed by the siblings’ bravery. The guards also permitted Sophie, Hans, and Christoph to have one last meeting. Once finished, Sophie was led first to the guillotine. A witness described Sophie as unflinching as she walked to her death. The executioner also remarked that he had never seen someone meet the end of life as courageously as she did. Next was Christoph, who shouted, “We will meet each other in a few minutes!” right before his death. Last was Hans, whose last words were simply: “Long live the freedom!” The Nazis were so eager to eliminate this danger to the regime that the news of the incident was not released until after the executions took place.

This was not the end of the killing. Alex Schmorell tried to escape to Switzerland, but had to retreat due to deep snow. He was later arrested during an air raid, after being betrayed by a former girlfriend. A second trial took place on April 19, at which Schmorell, Graf, and Huber were all tried and convicted. Schmorell and Huber were later executed on July 13, 1944, and Graf was executed on October 12. Hundreds of other people connected with the White Rose were arrested and sentenced to various punishments. George Wittenstein was the only man to survive the war. He was tried after attempting to help a Jewish woman escape from Germany, but was found not guilty and was set free.


Monuments Men: On the Front Line to Save Europe's Art, 1942-1946

During World War II, an unlikely team of soldiers was charged with identifying and protecting European cultural sites, monuments, and buildings from Allied bombing. Officially named the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA) Section, this U.S. Army unit included art curators, scholars, architects, librarians, and archivists from the U.S. and Britain. They quickly became known as The Monuments Men.

Towards the end of the war, their mission changed to one of locating and recovering works of art that had been looted by the Nazis. The Monuments Men uncovered troves of stolen art hidden across Germany and Austria?some in castles, others in salt mines. They rescued some of history&rsquos greatest works of art.

Among the holdings of the Archives of American Art are the papers of Monuments Men George Leslie Stout, James J. Rorimer, Walker Hancock, Thomas Carr Howe, S. Lane Faison, Walter Horn, and Otto Wittman. These personal archives tell a fascinating story.

The Archives of American Art’s exhibition space is located two blocks away from our D.C. Research Center in the Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture (8th and F Streets NW).

The Lawrence A. Fleischman Gallery and select Smithsonian museums, reopen to the public on May 14 with free timed-entry passes required. Please visit www.si.edu/visit to reserve your passes and review safety requirements before your visit.

Hours: Open daily 11:30 a.m.–7:00 p.m.

Admission: Free

Exhibition Chronology

Read the full chronology of exhibitions organized by the Archives of American Art.

Terra Foundation Center for Digital Collections

A virtual repository of a substantial cross-section of the Archives' most significant collections.


21 February 1942 - History

EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY

COMMUNIQUÉ OF THE

21 ST ORDINARY SUMMIT OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY HEADS OF STATE

1. THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY HEADS OF STATE, THEIR EXCELLENCIES PRESIDENT PAUL KAGAME OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA PRESIDENT UHURU KENYATTA OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA PRESIDENT ÉVARISTE NDAYISHIMIYE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI PRESIDENT SALVA KIIR MAYARDIT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN PRESIDENT YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA HER EXCELLENCY SAMIA SULUHU HASSAN REPRESENTING PRESIDENT DR. JOHN POMBE JOSEPH MAGUFULI OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA HELD THE 21 ST ORDINARY SUMMIT OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY HEADS OF STATE VIA VIDEO CONFERENCE ON 27 TH FEBRUARY, 2021. THE HEADS OF STATE MET IN A WARM AND CORDIAL ATMOSPHERE.

2. THE SUMMIT RECEIVED THE PROGRESS REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS FOR THE PERIOD FEBRUARY 2019 TO FEBRUARY 2021 AND COMMENDED THE COUNCIL FOR THE PROGRESS MADE IN IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS OF THE COMMUNITY.

3. THE SUMMIT FURTHER CONSIDERED A REPORT OF THE COUNCIL ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREVIOUS DECISIONS AND DIRECTIVES OF THE SUMMIT AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO IMPLEMENT ALL OUTSTANDING DECISIONS AND DIRECTIVES AND REPORT TO THE 22 ND

4. THE SUMMIT RECEIVED A PROGRESS REPORT ON THE CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE EAST AFRICAN POLITICAL CONFEDERATION AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO EXPEDITE THE CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS.

5. THE SUMMIT CONSIDERED A REPORT ON THE STATUS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF ITS DIRECTIVE TO UNDERTAKE A STUDY ON THE MODALITIES OF INCLUDING FRENCH AS A LANGUAGE OF THE COMMUNITY, IN ADDITION TO ENGLISH AND KISWAHILI AND ADOPTED ENGLISH, FRENCH AND KISWAHILI AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE COMMUNITY AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO EXPEDITE THE IMPLEMENTATION MODALITIES OF THE DIRECTIVE.

6. THE SUMMIT CONSIDERED A REPORT ON THE ROADMAP FOR THE ACCELERATED INTEGRATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN INTO THE EAC AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO CONCLUDE THE PROCESS.

7. THE SUMMIT NOTED THAT THE VERIFICATION EXERCISE FOR THE ADMISSION OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF SOMALIA INTO THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY HAD NOT BEEN UNDERTAKEN AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO FOLLOW UP ON THE EXERCISE.

8. THE SUMMIT CONSIDERED AN APPLICATION BY THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (DRC) TO JOIN THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY AND DIRECTED THE COUNCIL TO EXPEDITIOUSLY UNDERTAKE A VERIFICATION MISSION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE EAC PROCEDURE FOR ADMISSION OF NEW MEMBERS INTO THE EAC AND REPORT TO THE 22 ND

9. THE SUMMIT RECALLED ITS PREVIOUS DISCUSSIONS ON THE EU-EAC ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT AND RECOGNIZED THAT NOT ALL PARTNER STATES ARE IN A POSITION TO SIGN, RATIFY AND IMPLEMENT THE AGREEMENT. THE SUMMIT RECOGNIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF SOME PARTNER STATES TO MOVE FORWARD. THE SUMMIT CONCLUDED THAT PARTNER STATES WHO WISH TO DO SO SHOULD BE ABLE TO COMMENCE ENGAGEMENTS WITH THE EU WITH A VIEW TO STARTING THE EU-EAC-EPA IMPLEMENTATION UNDER THE PRINCIPLE OF VARIABLE GEOMENTRY.

10. THE SUMMIT APPOINTED DR. PETER MATHUKI FROM THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA AS THE NEW SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE COMMUNITY FOR A FIVE-YEAR NON-RENEWABLE TERM. THE TENURE OF THE NEW SECRETARY GENERAL TAKES EFFECT ON 25 TH APRIL, 2021

11. THE SUMMIT THANKED AMB. LIBERAT MFUMUKEKO FOR HIS DEDICATED SERVICE RENDERED TO THE COMMUNITY AND WISHED HIM WELL IN HIS FUTURE ENDEAVOURS.

12. THE SUMMIT APPOINTED JUSTICE NESTOR KAYOBERA, LADY JUSTICE ANITA MUGENI AND JUSTICE KATHURIMA M’INOTI AS JUDGES TO THE APPELLATE DIVISION OF THE EAST AFRICAN COURT OF JUSTICE WITH EFFECT FROM 27 TH FEBRUARY, 2021.

13. THE SUMMIT ALSO APPOINTED JUSTICE YOHANE BAKOBORA MASARA, JUSTICE RICHARD WABWIRE WEJULI, JUSTICE RICHARD MUHUMUZA AS JUDGES TO THE FIRST INSTANCE DIVISION OF THE EAST AFRICAN COURT OF JUSTICE WITH EFFECT FROM 27 TH FEBRUARY, 2021.

14. THE SUMMIT DESIGNATED JUSTICE NESTOR KAYOBERA AS JUDGE PRESIDENT OF THE EAST AFRICAN COURT OF JUSTICE, JUSTICE GEOFFREY KIRYABWIRE AS VICE PRESIDENT OF THE COURT JUSTICE YOHANE BAKOBORA MASARA AS PRINCIPAL JUDGE AND JUSTICE AUDACE NGIYE DEPUTY PRINCIPAL JUDGE WITH EFFECT FROM 27 TH FEBRUARY, 2021.

15. THE SUMMIT THANKED JUSTICE DR EMMANUEL UGIRASHEBUJA, JUSTICE LIBOIRE NKURUNZIZA, JUSTICE AARON RINGERA, LADY JUSTICE MONICA MUGENYI, JUSTICE DR FAUSTIN NTEZILAYO AND JUSTICE FAKIHI JUNDU FOR THEIR DEDICATED SERVICE TO THE COMMUNITY AND WISHED THEM WELL IN THEIR FUTURE ENDEAVOURS.

16. THE SUMMIT RESOLVED THAT THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA WOULD BE THE NEW CHAIRPERSON OF THE COMMUNITY WHILE THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI WOULD BE THE RAPPORTEUR. THE SUMMIT CLARIFIED THAT THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI WOULD BECOME THE NEXT CHAIRPERSON AFTER THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA.

17. THEIR EXCELLENCIES PRESIDENT UHURU KENYATTA OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA PRESIDENT ÉVARISTE NDAYISHIMIYE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURUNDI PRESIDENT SALVA KIIR MAYARDIT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN PRESIDENT YOWERI KAGUTA MUSEVENI OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA AND VICE PRESIDENT SAMIA SULUHU HASSAN REPRESENTING PRESIDENT DR. JOHN POMBE JOSEPH MAGUFULI OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, THANKED THE OUTGOING CHAIRPERSON OF THE SUMMIT, HIS EXCELLENCY PRESIDENT PAUL KAGAME OF THE REPUBLIC OF RWANDA, FOR HIS STEWARDSHIP OF THE COMMUNITY DURING HIS TENURE.


Purple Heart Timeline

February 22, 1932
General Order #3, signed by General Douglas MacArthur creates the modern Purple Heart

December 3, 1942
Executive Order 9277 by President Roosevelt authorizes the Purple Heart for all branches of service and authorizes posthumous awards, back dated to 6 December 1941.

November 12, 1952
Executive Order 10409 authorizes posthumous Purple Heart awards to Navy, Coast Guard or Marine Corps personnel killed on or after April 5, 1917. (The Army and the Air Force are not formally included until 1962)

April 25, 1962
Executive Order 11016 authorizes civilian Purple Hearts for those under competent military authority it also authorized posthumous awards to those killed on or after April 5, 1917 upon application by their next of kin.

February 23, 1984
Executive Order 12464 authorizes the Purple Heart to be awarded for acts of terror as well as for wounds or death resulting from US Armed Forces personnel acting as part of a peacekeeping force outside of the United States or its territories.

November 30, 1993
Purple Hearts may be awarded for wounds or death resulting from "friendly fire" (unless it from willful misconduct).US Code 10 section 1129, per PL 103-160

February 10, 1996
PL 104-106 Section 521 expands Purple Heart eligibility to POWs wounded during capture or during captivity prior to April 25, 1962. (Policy interpretations had considered, and awarded the Purple Heart, on case by case bases to POWs captured after April 25, 1962)

May 19, 1998
Effective this date, the Purple Heart is limited to American military personnel and civilian awards are eliminated.

October 1, 2008
The Department of Defense authorizes the Purple Heart for POWs (after December 7, 1941) who subsequently die in captivity. Information is from the Memo this date to secretaries of the military departments.

April 28, 2011
The Department of Defense announces a standard to evaluate a wounded individual for a Purple Heart resulting from a "non-penetrating wound".

February 6, 2015
The Department of Defense announces that eligibility has been extended to those wounded or killed by certain kinds domestic terrorist activities.


Most extreme temperatures in the history of every state

On Aug. 16, 2020, California’s Death Valley reached 130 degrees Fahrenheit, according to an automated measuring system there, representing one of the highest temperatures ever recorded on the planet. The world record, also recorded at Death Valley, was 134 degrees in July 1913.

More than 210 degrees Fahrenheit separates the highest and the lowest temperatures on record in the United States, the third-largest country in the world. As some states are infamous for having blistering hot summers, others become inundated by winter storms and frigid cold. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that the summer of 2020 was the hottest on record in the Northern Hemisphere and the second-hottest summer globally.

Stacker consulted 2019 data from the NOAA's State Climate Extremes Committee (SCEC) to create this slideshow illustrating the hottest and coldest temperatures ever recorded in each state. Each slide also reveals the all-time highest 24-hour precipitation record and all-time highest 24-hour snowfall.

Keep reading to find out individual state records in alphabetical order.

- All-time highest temperature: 112° F (Centreville on Sept. 6, 1925)
- All-time lowest temperature: -27° F (New Market 2 on Jan. 30, 1966)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 32.52 inches (Dauphin Island #2 on July 19–20, 1997)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 20 inches (Walnut Grove on March 13, 1993)

Walnut Grove became famous as a town burned during the Civil War. Despite being another subtropical town, on March 13, 1993, it was covered in 20 inches of snow. The extreme weather was termed the "Superstorm of 1993" by the National Weather Service because of its strength (equal to a Category 3 hurricane) and size. At one point, the storm system ran from Eastern Canada to Central America.

- All-time highest temperature: 100° F (Fort Yukon on June 27, 1915)
- All-time lowest temperature: -80° F (Prospect Creek on Jan. 23, 1971)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 15.05 inches (Seward Airport on Oct. 10, 1986)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 78 inches (Mile 47 Camp on Feb. 9, 1963)

Prospect Creek recorded the coldest ever U.S. temperature of -80 degrees in 1971. On Oct. 10, 1986, Seward witnessed the highest rainfall as compared to any other parts of Alaska due to an unrelenting rainstorm. The highways and the railroads took a massive hit during the three-day rainstorm, and the region was declared as a "Federal disaster area." In October 2018, the city of Seward was forced to announce an emergency declaration after facing the wrath of heavy flooding yet again. Nearly 5 inches of rain were recorded following several days of heavy rainfall that caused debris to block several roads.

- All-time highest temperature: 128° F (Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994)
- All-time lowest temperature: -40° F (Hawley Lake on Jan. 7, 1971)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 11.4 inches (Workman Creek 1 on Sept. 4–5, 1970)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 38 inches (Heber (Black Mesa) Ranger Station on Dec. 14, 1967)

Heber Black Mesa Ranger Station is a two-and-a-half-hour drive from Phoenix and is a ranger district on the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests. On Dec. 14, 1967, this part of Arizona suffered from an unexpected natural disaster in the form of a non-stop snowfall that lasted eight days and came to be known as The Blizzard of 1967.

- All-time highest temperature: 120° F (Ozark on Aug.10, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -29° F (Gravette on Feb.13, 1905)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 14.06 inches (Big Fork 1 SSE on Dec. 3, 1982)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 25 inches (Corning on Jan. 22, 1918)

"The Great Heat Wave of 1936" affected around 15 states during its three-week run that brought temperatures above 100 degrees. Still, Ozark topped the charts by reaching 120 degrees. Also known as the "1936 North American Heat Wave," it exacerbated the levels of human suffering during the ongoing Great Depression. Little Rock in Arkansas had to endure its hottest summer in 2010 between June and August when the temperature went above 90 degrees for two months.

- All-time highest temperature: 134° F (Greenland Ranch on July 10, 1913)
- All-time lowest temperature: -45° F (Boca on Jan. 20, 1937)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 25.83 inches (Hoegees Fc 60 A on Jan. 22–23, 1943)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 67 inches (Echo Summit Sierra at Tahoe on Jan. 5, 1982)

Death Valley's Greenland Ranch holds the record for the highest temperature ever recorded at 134 in 1913. But On Jan. 20, 1937, Boca—a former reservoir located in Nevada County—recorded a mind-numbingly cold temperature of -45 degrees. In February 2019, news reports observed that June Mountain in the Sierra Nevada, located east of Yosemite National Park, reported 72 inches of snow in 24 hours.

- All-time highest temperature: 115° F (John Martin Reservoir on July 20, 2019)
- All-time lowest temperature: -61° F (Maybell on Feb. 1, 1985)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 11.85 inches (USGS Rod & Gun (Ft. Carson) on Sept.12, 2013)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 75.8 inches (Silver Lake on April 14–15, 1921)

During the 2013 floods that took place across Colorado, the highest precipitation levels were recorded on Sept. 12, 2013, at Fort Carson, a United States Army installation located in El Paso County. In September 2019, smaller rainstorms affected Denver that resulted in flash floods and mudslides.

- All-time highest temperature: 106° F (Torrington on Aug. 23, 1916)
- All-time lowest temperature: -32° F (Falls Village on Feb. 16, 1943)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 12.77 inches (Burlington on Aug. 19, 1955)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 36 inches (Ansonia 1 NE on Feb. 8–9, 2013)

On Aug. 19, 1955, The Great Flood of 1955 occurred in Burlington. The last time Connecticut had witnessed such heavy rainfalls was during colonial times. Fast forward to 64 years later to October 2019 when strong winds and heavy rains left thousands of residents without electricity in Wilton, Connecticut. Following that, coastal flooding warnings were also issued to New Haven and Fairfield counties.

- All-time highest temperature: 110° F (Millsboro on July 21, 1930)
- All-time lowest temperature: -17° F (Millsboro on Jan. 17, 1893)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 8.5 inches (Dover on July 13, 1975)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 25 inches (Dover on Feb. 19, 1979)

Millsboro is one of the two cities in the United States that holds the record for both the highest and lowest temperatures recorded in a state. Also of interest was a major east coast cyclone in 1979 that brought record-breaking snowfall to the Mid-Atlantic states. Because of this, Dover received the most snowfall in the history of Delaware's climate. In comparison to the 25 inches of snow recorded in Dover in February 1979, there were only 4–6 inches of snowfall in January 2019.

- All-time highest temperature: 109° F (Monticello 5 SE on June 29, 1931)
- All-time lowest temperature: -2° F (Tallahassee on Feb.13, 1899)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 23.28 inches (Key West International Airport on Nov.11–12, 1980)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 4 inches (Milton Experiment Station on March 6, 1954)

1980's Hurricane Jeanne indirectly struck Florida's Key West with heavy rainfall after it first formed in the Gulf of Mexico. But it did result in the heaviest rainfall Florida had ever witnessed within one day. Florida was struck in 2004 by four back-to-back major hurricanes within six weeks.

- All-time highest temperature: 112° F (Greenville on Aug. 20, 1983)
- All-time lowest temperature: -17° F (CCC Fire Camp F-16 (near Beatum) on Jan. 27, 1940)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 21.1 inches (Americus on July 6, 1994)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 19.3 inches (Cedartown on March 3, 1942)

The flood of 1994 in Americus included surging floodwaters that entered Americus rapidly and were described as "fierce" by local news outlets. More than 100 small dams in nearby areas had reached their capacity and started washing out directly on the roads. The deluge also damaged the railroad service that took several months to recover even after the floodwaters receded.

- All-time highest temperature: 100° F (Pahala 21 on April 27, 1931)
- All-time lowest temperature: 12° F (Mauna Kea Observatory 111. on May 17, 1979)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 38 inches (Kilauea 1134 on Jan. 24–25, 1956)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 6.5 inches (Haleakala on Feb. 2, 1936)

Hawaii's highest-ever rainfall came in late January of 1956 in Kilauea, Kauai. In April 2018, heavy rainfalls devastated the island of Kauai once again as dozens of homes were left in shambles in the island's towns, including Hanalei, Wainiha, Haena, and Anahola. The floods affected 532 houses in Kauai and Oahu, according to the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency.

- All-time highest temperature: 118° F (Orofino on July 28, 1934)
- All-time lowest temperature: -60° F (Island Park on Jan.18, 1943)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 7.17 inches (Rattlesnake Creek on Nov. 23, 1909)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 31 inches (Anderson Dam on Dec.18, 1967)

Rattlesnake Creek in Elmore County was recorded on Nov. 23, 1909, to have received the most rainfall of 7.17 inches in one day. In April 2019, several residents in the nearby community of Stites woke up to the sight of their homes and neighborhoods covered in more than a foot of water that had accumulated within an hour early in the morning.

- All-time highest temperature: 117° F (East St. Louis on July 14, 1954)
- All-time lowest temperature: -38° F (Mount Carroll on Jan. 31, 2019)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 16.91 inches (Aurora on July 18, 1996)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 36 inches (Astoria on Feb. 28, 1900)

East St. Louis recorded the state's most sweltering temperature on July 14, 1954. While the residents of East St. Louis first woke up to stifling 100-degree heat by late afternoon, the temperature soared to 117 degrees. Residents in St. Louis recalled July 14, 1954, as the day "they were just cooked."

- All-time highest temperature: 116° F (Collegeville St Joseph County Airport on July 14, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -36° F (New Whiteland on Jan. 19, 1994)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 10.5 inches (Princeton 1 W on Aug. 6, 1905)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 33 inches (Salem on Dec. 23, 2004)

On Aug. 6, 1905, Princeton, a city in Indiana's Gibson County, recorded the highest one-day-long rainfall event in the state at 10.5 inches. More recently, in June 2019, severe storms in central and southern Indiana caused floods that left thousands of households powerless. Several roads also had to be closed after there were reports of cars being stuck in the floods.

- All-time highest temperature: 118° F (Keokuk No 2 on July 20, 1934)
- All-time lowest temperature: -47° F (Elkader 6 SSW on Feb. 3, 1996)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 13.18 inches (Atlantic 1 NE on June 14, 1998)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 24 inches (Lenox on April 20, 1918)

The Nishnabotna River that runs along Atlantic in Iowa's Cass County experienced intense flooding on June 14, 1998, after heavy rainfall and a severe thunderstorm. Many bridges were either damaged or completely destroyed, and all highways and roads had to be closed once the flooding started intensifying. More recently, in October 2020, western Iowa suffered from repeated flooding that forced the closure of Interstate 29 and Interstate 680.

- All-time highest temperature: 121° F (Fredonia on July 18, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -40° F (Lebanon on Feb. 13, 1905)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: Data not available
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 30 inches (Pratt 3NW on March 28, 2009)

Pratt, a city with a population of 6,835 people, had recorded the state's heaviest snowfall on March 28, 2009. A spring snowstorm had resulted in a whopping 30 inches of snow falling within one day in Pratt.

- All-time highest temperature: 114° F (Greensburg on July 28, 1930)
- All-time lowest temperature: -37° F (Shelbyville 1 E on Jan. 19, 1994)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 10.48 inches (Louisville WFO on March 1, 1997)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 26 inches (Simers on March 3, 1942)

The flood of 1997 in Louisville resulted in 10.48 inches of rainfall within one day on March 1, 1997. The deluge intensified when smaller streams started overflowing rapidly, which in turn caused the worst flooding along the Ohio River. As if the large amounts of flooding wasn't bad enough, tornadoes were also reported from Arkansas to southern Kentucky.

- All-time highest temperature: 114° F (Plain Dealing on Aug. 10, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -16° F (Minden on Feb. 13, 1899)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 22 inches (Hackberry 8 SSW on Aug. 28–29, 1962)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 13 inches (Colfax on Feb. 13, 1960)

Hackberry, a community in Cameron Parish, witnessed the state's heaviest rainfall between Aug. 28 and 29 in 1962. A tropical depression that had first formed in the western Gulf of Mexico eventually struck the Texas and Louisiana border two days later before finally subsiding on Aug. 30, 1962. In August 2016, the state of Louisiana suffered from devastating flooding. More than 100,000 houses were destroyed, and over 10,000 people had to move to shelters.

- All-time highest temperature: 105° F (North Bridgton on July 10, 1911)
- All-time lowest temperature: -50° F (Big Black River (near Saint Pamphile, Pq) on Jan. 16, 2009)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 13.32 inches (Portland Jetport on Oct. 20–21, 1996)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 40 inches (Orono on Dec. 30, 1962)

The flood of Southern Maine in 1996 resulted in the state's highest rainfall or precipitation levels on Oct. 20–21, 1996, that was recorded at the Portland Jetport. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the severe flooding resulted in one death and damaged more than 2,100 homes and businesses. Most recently, on April 21, 2019, huge amounts of snow that had accumulated across Maine resulted in several minor and major floods.

- All-time highest temperature: 109° F (Cumberland on Aug. 6, 1918)
- All-time lowest temperature: -40° F (Oakland 1 SE on Jan.13, 1912)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 14.75 inches (Jewell on July 26–27, 1897)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 31 inches (Clear Spring 1 ENE on March 29, 1942)

The greatest record 24-hour total rainfall in Maryland was in Jewell on July 26–27, 1897. In mid-October, Maryland experienced coastal flooding because of Tropical Storm Melissa that kept increasing water levels at the Chesapeake Bay as floods were 2.5 feet higher than usual.

- All-time highest temperature: 107° F (Chester 2 on Aug. 2, 1975)
- All-time lowest temperature: -35° F (Coldbrook on Feb.15, 1943)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 18.15 inches (Westfield on Aug. 18–19, 1955)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 29 inches (Natick on April 1, 1997)

Westfield, Massachusetts, suffered from heavy flooding and rainfall in the middle of August 1955, making it the wettest day for the state. The Great Flood of 1955 affected both Connecticut and Massachusetts, resulting from Hurricanes Connie and then a week later, Hurricane Diane.

- All-time highest temperature: 112° F (Stanwood on July 13, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -51° F (Vanderbilt 11ENE on Feb. 9, 1934)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 12.92 inches (6E Fountain on July 20, 2019)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 32 inches (Herman on Dec. 2, 1985)

In the years of 2013 and 2014, Michigan faced heavy flooding after the Grand Rapids River overflowed. In 2019 after almost two weeks of heavy rainfall, most homes in the Jefferson Chalmers neighborhood were underwater.

- All-time highest temperature: 115° F (Beardsley on July 29, 1917)
- All-time lowest temperature: -60° F (Tower 2S on Feb. 2, 1996)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 15.1 inches (Hokah Wastewater Treatment Plant on Aug. 19, 2007)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 36 inches (Wolf Ridge Environmental Learning Center on Jan.7, 1994)

Hokah, a city in Houston County, had the state's heaviest one-day rainfall on Aug. 19, 2007. The flood of 2007 claimed the lives of six people and resulted in nearby counties also going several feet underwater.

- All-time highest temperature: 115° F (Holly Springs 2 N on July 29, 1930)
- All-time lowest temperature: -19° F (Corinth 7 SW on Jan. 30, 1966)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 15.68 inches (Columbus 4 ESE on July 9, 1968)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 18 inches (Tunica 2 N on Dec. 23, 1963)

The "New Year's Snowstorm" swept through the Southern United States, killing three people and setting historic snowfall records in Tunica, Mississippi. A few days later, Alabama and Tennessee witnessed extremely heavy snowfall from Dec. 31, 1963, to Jan. 1, 1964.

- All-time highest temperature: 118° F (Warsaw 1 on July 14, 1954)
- All-time lowest temperature: -40° F (Warsaw 1 on Feb. 13, 1905)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 18.18 inches (Edgerton on July 20, 1965)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 24 inches (Jackson on Feb. 25, 1979)

Warsaw is one of two cities in the United States that holds the record for both the highest and lowest temperatures recorded in a state (the other is Millsboro, Delaware). During the 1965 flood in Edgerton, four people died and 729 residences were damaged or completely destroyed. Approximately 433,000 acres of agricultural land flooded during the deluge. The total damages the floods inflicted on properties cost Missouri $24,292,900.

- All-time highest temperature: 117° F (Glendive on July 20, 1893)
- All-time lowest temperature: -70° F (Rogers Pass on Jan.20, 1954)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 11.5 inches (Springbrook on June 20, 1921)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 48 inches (Millegan 14 SE on Dec. 27, 2003)

Montana's lowest temperature was recorded in 1954 at -70 degrees. But in early February 2019 and into the first week of March, Montana set a brand-new bone-chilling record for consecutive below-freezing days when Great Falls concluded its 32-day streak on March 8, 2019.

- All-time highest temperature: 118° F (Geneva on July 15, 1934)
- All-time lowest temperature: -47° F (Oshkosh on Dec. 22, 1989)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 13.15 inches (York on July 8–9, 1950)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 27 inches (Dalton on Dec.21, 2006)

Before the unforgiving heat wave hit Geneva, Nebraska, in July 1934, the state was already struggling due to a severe drought that had worsened living conditions for farmers and other residents. During "The Heat Wave of 1934," people slept outdoors to escape from the terrible heat in their own houses.

- All-time highest temperature: 125° F (Laughlin on June 29, 1994)
- All-time lowest temperature: -50° F (San Jacinto on Jan. 8, 1937)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 7.78 inches (Mt. Charleston Fire Station on Oct. 20, 2004)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 36 inches (Daggett Pass on Dec. 21, 1996)

Nevada is no stranger to extreme heat. While the hottest day in Nevada was recorded in Laughlin in 1994, in late August 2019, an excessive heat warning was issued to the residents of Las Vegas as the temperature slid up to 110 degrees. Studies show residents will likely be at an increased risk from exposure to extreme heat due to climate change.

- All-time highest temperature: 106° F (Nashua 2 Nnw on July 4, 1911)
- All-time lowest temperature: -50° F (Mount Washington on Jan. 22, 1885)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 11.07 inches (Mount Washington on Oct.20–21, 1996)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 49.3 inches (Mount Washington on Feb. 25, 1969)

New Hampshire's "100-Hour Snowstorm of February 1969" produced record snowfall for New Hampshire. Even the neighboring states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, and Vermont were affected by the massive snowstorm.

- All-time highest temperature: 110° F (Runyon on July 10, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -34° F (River Vale on Jan. 5, 1904)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 14.81 inches (Tuckerton 2 Ne on Aug. 19–20, 1939)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 32 inches (Rutherford on Dec. 14, 1915)

According to New Jersey State climatologist David Robinson, several factors contributed to River Vale recording the state's coldest day. Two of the biggest reasons were River Vale's unique location and barren landscape. To top that off, River Vale had some heavy snowfall on the same day that made the location excessively cold in January 1904.

- All-time highest temperature: 122° F (Waste Isolt'n Pilot Plt on June 27, 1994)
- All-time lowest temperature: -50° F (Gavilan on Feb. 1, 1951)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 11.28 inches (Lake Maloya on May 18–19, 1955)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 41 inches (Kelly Ranch on Feb. 3, 1964)

While New Mexico is known for its dry, desert environment, it averages fairly low temperatures during the peak of winter. But on Feb. 1, 1951, Gavilan in north Albuquerque experienced an Alaska-like winter at -50 degrees.

- All-time highest temperature: 108° F (Troy on July 22, 1926)
- All-time lowest temperature: -52° F (Old Forge on Feb. 18, 1979)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 13.57 inches (Islip-Long Island MacArthur Airport on Aug. 12–13, 2014)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 49 inches (Watertown on Nov. 14–15, 1900)

The historic Islip, Long Island, flash flooding on Aug. 12–13, 2014, took place after a torrential downpour. Several expressways, streets, and houses were completely water-logged. Countless crews had to work around the clock to pump out all the water.

- All-time highest temperature: 110° F (Fayetteville Regional Airport Grannis Field on Aug. 21, 1983)
- All-time lowest temperature: -34° F (Mt. Mitchell on Jan. 21, 1985)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 22.22 inches (Altapass on July 15–16, 1916)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 36 inches (Mt. Mitchell on March 13, 1993)

After heavy rainfall lashed North Carolina, the French Broad and Swannanoa rivers started overflowing, resulting in the "Great Flood of 1916." The exact number of people who died during this deluge is still unknown, but it's estimated that at least a few dozen people lost their lives. Houses, warehouses, and industrial plants along the French Broad were almost underwater.

- All-time highest temperature: 121° F (Steele 4N on July 6, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -60° F (Parshall on Feb. 15, 1936)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 8.1 inches (Litchville 2NW on June 29, 1975)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 27 inches (Minot International Airport on April 27, 1984)

Parshall became intolerably frigid in February 1936 at -60 degrees Fahrenheit. Interestingly, this recording was made by an unnamed coal-miner, who had volunteered to be a weather observer, with the help of a special (mercury-thallium alloy) thermometer.

- All-time highest temperature: 113° F (Gallipolis on July 21, 1934)
- All-time lowest temperature: -39° F (Milligan on Feb. 10, 1899)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 10.75 inches (Lockington Dam (near Sidney, Shelby Co.) on Aug.7-8, 1995)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 30 inches (Warren 3 S on April 20, 1901)

During the statewide 1934 heat wave, residents of Gallipolis, a village in Ohio, bore the brunt of the highest temperature ever recorded in the state. Residents left their furnace-like houses in the hopes of finding a shady spot to cool off, while many slept on their rooftops, porches, or lawns. The oppressive heat made the death toll climb to 160 from July 20–26. An extreme heat wave during July 2019 made the mercury levels increase to 112 degrees in northern Ohio.

- All-time highest temperature: 120° F (Poteau on Aug. 10, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -31° F (Nowata on Feb. 10, 2011)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 15.68 inches (Enid on Oct. 11, 1973)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 27 inches (Spavinaw on Feb. 9–10, 2011)

The deadly 1973 flood in Oklahoma had started with relentless rainfall and ended only after killing nine people. According to The Oklahoman, in a desperate attempt to flee from the surging water levels, residents had cut holes through their walls to climb up on rooftops. Several others tried to take shelter in their attics as their houses started filling up with water.

- All-time highest temperature: 119° F (Pendleton Downtown on Aug. 10, 1898)
- All-time lowest temperature: -54° F (Seneca on Feb. 10, 1933)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 11.77 inches (Nehalem 9 NE on Nov. 6, 2006)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 47 inches (Hood River Experiment Station on Jan. 9, 1980)

Pendleton, a city in Umatilla County, recorded the hottest summer day in Oregon in 1898. In June 2019, Portland broke the record for the state's hottest June ever recorded when the temperature soared to 97 degrees.

- All-time highest temperature: 111° F (Phoenixville 1 E on July 10, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -42° F (Smethport on Jan. 5, 1904)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 13.5 inches (York 3 SSW Pump Station on June 22, 1972)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 38 inches (Morgantown on March 20, 1958)

Tropical storm Agnes unleashed its fury on Pennsylvania in 1972 by claiming the lives of 48 people in the state and causing damages worth an astounding $2 billion. According to The Evening News, Susquehanna River, which has a normal volume of 23 billion gallons a day, began overflowing rapidly into Harrisburg as its volume increased to 650 billion gallons two days after the state experienced its most torrential downpour.

- All-time highest temperature: 104° F (Providence on Aug. 2, 1975)
- All-time lowest temperature: -28° F (Wood River Junction on Jan. 11, 1942)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 12.13 inches (Westerly 1 W on Sept. 16–17, 1932)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 30 inches (Woonsocket on Feb. 7, 1978)

The blizzard of 1978 in Rhode Island turned a seemingly normal Monday into a historical record of the highest snowfall the state had ever experienced. The snowfall began at 10 a.m. Monday and didn't stop for 36 hours. It was believed that around 55 inches of snow accumulated in different parts of the state.

- All-time highest temperature: 113° F (Columbia Univ. of S.C. on June 29, 2012)
- All-time lowest temperature: -19° F (Caesars Head on Jan. 21, 1985)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 14.8 inches (Myrtle Beach on Sept. 16, 1999)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 24 inches (Rimini 2 SSW on Feb.9–10, 1973)

The summer 2012 heat wave was responsible for at least 82 deaths across the U.S. It was reported that South Carolina was exposed to the worst portions of this heat wave on June 29. The city continued to record the same temperature for 11 days straight at 100 degrees Fahrenheit.

- All-time highest temperature: 120° F (Fort Pierre 17 WSW on July 15, 2006)
- All-time lowest temperature: -58° F (McIntosh 6 SE on Feb.17, 1936)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 8.74 inches (Groton on May 6, 2007)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 52 inches (Lead on March 14, 1973)

Record heat in 2006 resulted in the state's highest temperature in Fort Pierre, a city in Stanley County. The heat wave during July 2006 was so intense in South Dakota, Kansas, and Nebraska that it ended up disrupting transportation links and straining electric power grids.

- All-time highest temperature: 113° F (Perryville on Aug. 9, 1930)
- All-time lowest temperature: -32° F (Mountain City on Dec. 30, 1917)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 13.6 inches (Milan Exp Station on Sept. 13, 1982)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 30 inches (Mt. Leconte on March 14, 1993)

Western Tennessee experienced intense rainfall from Sept. 12 to 13, 1982, after the remnants of Hurricane Chris triggered severe flooding in many streams located in Gibson County. The floods were devastating, causing deaths and damaging the local infrastructure. The collateral damages cost the state millions of dollars.

- All-time highest temperature: 120° F (Seymour 3NW on Aug.12, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -23° F (Tulia Near on Feb.12, 1899)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 42 inches (Alvin on July 25–26, 1979)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 26 inches (Hillsboro on Dec. 20–21, 1929)

The sweltering heat wave of 1936 claimed the lives of 5,000 people across the U.S. but didn't receive widespread coverage by leading newspapers at the time. During the 2019 heat wave in the state, Galveston's temperature stayed at 100 degrees for 40 hours. The heat felt even more stifling due to high humidity levels.

- All-time highest temperature: 117° F (St. George on July 5, 1985)
- All-time lowest temperature: -50° F (East Portal on Jan. 5, 1913)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 5.08 inches (Deer Creek Dam on Feb. 1, 1963)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 38 inches (Alta on Dec. 2, 1982)

Utah is famous for its ski resorts and ample amount of snowfall during winters, but summers can get unbearably hot. St. George's arid weather makes it far warmer than other parts of Utah, thanks to the fact that it is located in the Mojave Desert, which explains why it holds the record at 117 degrees. During the summer of 2019, Salt Lake City and other parts of the state experienced stifling heat after a high of 103 degrees was recorded in July.

- All-time highest temperature: 107° F (Vernon on July 7, 1912)
- All-time lowest temperature: -50° F (Bloomfield on Dec. 30, 1933)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 9.92 inches (Mount Mansfield on Sept.17, 1999)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 42 inches (Jay Peak on Feb.5, 1995)

Bloomfield, a town with a tiny population of 221 people (as of the 2010 census), recorded the state's most unbearably cold temperature in 1933. Normally, the average temperature during winter in the state ranges between 2 degrees to 12 degrees.

You may also like: 15 wild weather phenomena

- All-time highest temperature: 110° F (Balcony Falls on July 15, 1954)
- All-time lowest temperature: -30° F (Mount Lake Biological Station on Jan. 21, 1985)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 14.28 inches (Williamsburg 2 N on Sept. 16, 1999)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 33.5 inches (Luray 5 E on March 3, 1994)

Hurricane Floyd caused four deaths in Virginia in 1999 and cost the state $150 million after severely damaging thousands of houses, businesses, and crops. Hundreds of residents had to be evacuated as the water levels increased to several feet. The hurricane affected Williamsburg, Richmond, and other parts of the state like Hanover County and Southampton County.

- All-time highest temperature: 118° F (Ice Harbor Dam on Aug.5, 1961)
- All-time lowest temperature: -48° F (Winthrop 1 WSW on Dec. 30, 1968)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 14.26 inches (Mount Mitchell #2 on Nov. 23-24, 1986)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 65 inches (Crystal Mountain Ski Resort on Feb. 24, 1994)

Crystal Mountain, the biggest ski resort in Washington State, is located in the Cascade Range, only two hours away from Seattle. After breaking records for the highest snowfall within 24 hours in 1994, the resort was covered in more than 7 feet of snow within a week in February 2019. A full 31.5 inches of snow fell In a single day.

- All-time highest temperature: 112° F (Moorefield 1 SSE on Aug.4, 1930)
- All-time lowest temperature: -37° F (Lewisburg 3 N on Dec.30, 1917)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 12.02 inches (Brushy Run on June 18, 1949)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 35 inches (Flat Top on Jan.27–28, 1998)

A massive blizzard struck West Virginia Jan. 20, 1978—it shut down the government for an entire day and paralyzed Kanawha Valley. However, the snowfall recorded back then still doesn't compare to the all-time highest record of 35 inches in Flat Top in 1998.

- All-time highest temperature: 114° F (Wisconsin Dells on July 13, 1936)
- All-time lowest temperature: -55° F (Couderay 7 W on Feb. 4, 1996)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 11.72 inches (Mellen 4 NE on June 24, 1946)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 26 inches (Neillsville 3ESE on Dec. 26–27, 1904)

From Feb. 1 to Feb. 4, 1996, Arctic temperatures swept across the Upper Mississippi River Valley. Wisconsin experienced its coldest and most hostile weather in Couderay Feb. 4. Situated in Sawyer County, the small and nondescript village was the victim of a frigid air mass that settled into the region and resulted in the record low temperature in Wisconsin.

- All-time highest temperature: 115° F (Basin on Aug. 8, 1983)
- All-time lowest temperature: -66° F (Riverside Ranger Station, Yellowstone National Park) on Feb. 9, 1933)
- All-time highest 24-hour precipitation: 6.06 inches (Cheyenne WSFO Airport on Aug. 1, 1985)
- All-time highest 24-hour snowfall: 49 inches (Hunters Station on March 21, 1924)

Yellowstone National Park stands out with its unparalleled natural beauty that features geysers, hot springs, lush forests, and picturesque canyons. In the winter of 1933, around a mile away from the park's west entrances, the temperature recorded was -66 degrees.


The Massacre on Radji Beach

At Radji Beach, a little way to the north west of Muntok, an appalling event took place, which shook Australia and the world when it was known late in 1945, after the War. A group of 22 Australian nurses from the Vyner Brooke had reached the shore some distance from Muntok, together with wounded patients and a number of men – soldiers, sailors and civilians. They huddled on the sand around a fire, discussing their plight. The following day, on February 14th 1942, a group of able-bodied people walked to Muntok town to surrender while a small party went to look for help for the wounded. They soon returned, accompanied by a group of twelve Japanese soldiers.

Instead of providing help, the soldiers gestured to half of the shipwrecked men to move around a cove. After some time, the Japanese returned, wiping their bayonets and calling for the second group of men to follow.

Ernest Lloyd, a sailor from the Prince of Wales and American brewer Eric Germann were the two only survivors of this atrocity. Both later testified how they feigned death in the water as their companions were bayonetted and machine-gunned.

The Japanese next forced the Australian nurses and a civilian woman to walk together into the sea. The women were struck from behind with machine gun fire and fell, one by one. Of this group, only Nurse Vivian Bullwinkel survived the bullet had passed through her body, missing vital organs. Stunned, she lay in the shallow water, waves washing over her, pretending to be dead until the Japanese soldiers had left.

Right – the uniform worn by Vivian Bullwinkel on Radji beach.

Below, Sisters Ellen Keats (left) and Elizabeth Pyman, 10th Australian General Hospital, before the beginning of the war. Pyman reached safety in Australia on the Empire Star and Keats who was evacuated on the Vyner Brooke the next day was killed in the Bangka Island massacre.

Ellen Keats and Elizabeth Pyman

Once aware that the Japanese soldiers had gone, Vivian looked around at her dead comrades in horror. Fearing the soldiers may return, she moved up into the jungle and hid. There she found an injured British soldier, Private Cecil George Kingsley, who had abdominal and shoulder wounds. Vivian cared for him in the jungle for 12 days, bathing his injuries and seeking food from local villagers. Finally she realised their position was too difficult and they walked to Muntok town to surrender. They were placed in the Muntok jail with the other shipwrecked victims but without proper medical care, Kingsley soon died.

Kathleen Neuss who was killed on Radji Beach

Vivian Bullwinkel told her fellow nurses what had occurred but all swore secrecy to protect her life. It was feared the Japanese would kill her if it was known she had witnessed the massacre of the men and her nursing friends. She informed Australian army officer Major William Alston Tebbutt of the events, while they were both in Muntok jail, to ensure the killings were officially documented.

One of the nurses killed on Radji beach was Clarice Isobel Halligan (right). She was a dedicated nurse who spent her entire career as a missionary looking after the poor and vulnerable, in Australia and overseas, before she volunteered for the Australian Army, to help the sick and wounded in Singapore. One of eight children of Joseph Patrick and Emily Watson Halligan her story can be read in more detail HERE (<— PDF).

The Australian public did not learn of the massacre until after the War when they were shocked by newspaper reports. Two examples of those newspaper articles can be read HERE and HERE.

Vivian Bullwinkel testified at the Japanese War Crimes Tribunal in Tokyo in 1946. The world then heard the full and terrible story. Her testimony can be read HERE (PDF).

Of the 65 nurses from the Vyner Brooke, 12 drowned in the Bangka Straits and 21 died when shot from behind in the water at Radji Beach. 32 nurses were interned with the civilian women in Muntok and Palembang and later at Loeboek Linggau in Sumatra.

When they reached Palemebang the surviving nurses were placed in the Irenelaan Camp that the Japanese had set up to place women and children. The 2/10 Australian General Hospital (AGH) stayed in house 6, while nurses from 2/13 AGH and 2/4 Casualty Clearing Station stayed in house 7.

All suffered dreadfully throughout the War and 8 nurses died from sickness and starvation.

Radji Beach on Banka Island is sometimes known to local inhabitants as English Bay because of the European people who were killed there. Pieces of bone were said to wash up on the shore and residents of Bangka Island would not eat fish from this area for a very long time. The local people who had helped Vivian Bullwinkel and Private Kingsley were afraid of retribution from the Japanese and abandoned their village. The villager whose family had helped Vivian Bullwinkel and Kingsley was rewarded by the Australian government after the War.

One of the nurses, Kathleen Neuss, received a nasty shrapnel wound in the left hip when the Japanese bombed and shelled the Vyner Brooke and had to be helped by the other nurses when leaving the sinking ship.

The last letter Kath wrote to her sister was dated 16 January 1942. Her death was exactly one month later. Kath was tall and in the letter she tells her sister who had sent her a pair of shoes that: “One thing, the Japs will never wear the shoes” (as they would have been just too big).

Below from The Scotsman 17 September 1945:

In 2016 her nephews, Michael and Ian, returned to Radji Beach and placed a floral tribute to the memory of their aunt and the other nurses. They also established a FaceBook page in memory of the nurses massacred on Radji Beach

The tribute to the nurses


Watch the video: Власть под кайфом. Документальный фильм


Comments:

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