September 19, 2014 Day 242 of the Sixth Year - History

September 19, 2014 Day 242 of the Sixth Year - History


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President Barack Obama listens through a door in the Green Room of the White House as Lilly Jay relates her experience as a sexual assault survivor during the launch of the "It's On Us" campaign, a new public awareness and action campaign designed to prevent sexual assault at colleges and universities, in the East Room, Sept. 19, 2014


The Big Three of Greek Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and lasted through the Hellenistic period (323 BC-30 BC). Greek philosophy covers an absolutely enormous amount of topics including: political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology (the study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality), logic, biology, rhetoric, and aesthetics (branch of philosophy dealing with art, beauty, and taste). Greek philosophy is known for its undeniable influence on Western thought. Although there were Greek philosophers before their respective births, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the only three worth focusing on during this period.

Socrates, born in Athens in 470 BC, is often credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. The cloud of mystery surrounding his life and philosophical viewpoints propose a problem a problem so large that it’s given a name itself: The Socratic Problem. Since he did not write philosophical texts, all knowledge related to him is entirely dependent on the writings of other people of the time period. Works by Plato, Xenophon, Aristotle, and Aristophanes contain all of the knowledge known about this enigmatic figure. His largest contribution to philosophy is the Socratic method. The Socratic method is defined as a form of inquiry and discussion between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to illuminate ideas. This method is performed by asking question after question with the purpose of seeking to expose contradictions in one’s thoughts, guiding him/her to arrive at a solid, tenable conclusion. The principle underlying the Socratic Method is that humans learn through the use of reasoning and logic ultimately finding holes in their own theories and then patching them up.

Plato, student of Socrates, also has mystery surrounding him. His birth day is estimated to fall between 428 BC and 423 BC. He’s known for being the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. My favorite of Plato’s contributions to philosophy, and the one I’m going to focus on, is the Theory of Forms. This theory was created to solve two problems, one of ethics and one of permanence and change. The ethical problem is: how can humans live a fulfilling life in an ever changing world if everything that they hold close to them can be easily taken away? The problem dealing with permanence and change is: How can the world appear to be both permanent and changing? The world we perceive through senses seems to be always changing–which is a pretty clear observation. The world that we perceive through the mind, seems to be permanent and unchanging. Which world perceived is more real? Why are we seen two different worlds?

To find a solution to these problems, Plato split the world into two: the material, or phyiscal, realm and the transcendent, or mental, realm of forms. We have access to the realm of forms through the mind, allowing us access to an unchanging world. This particular world is invulnerable to the pains and changes of the material world. By detaching our souls from the material world and our bodies and developing our ability to concern ourselves with the forms, Plato believes this will lead to us finding a value which is not open to change. This solves the ethical problem. Splitting existence up into two realms also leads us to a solution to the problem of permanence and change. Our mind perceives a different world, with different objects, than our senses do. It is the material world, perceived through the senses, that is changing. It is the realm of forms, perceived through the mind, that is permanent.

Aristotle, student of Plato, lived from 384 BC-322 BC. At eighteen, he joined Plato’s Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven. There, he honed his talents of understanding the world. In his understanding of the world, he wrote his theory of the universals–which I find to be extremely intriguing. The problem of the universals is the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what exactly are they. To avoid confusion, a universal is a metaphysical term describing what particular things have in common, focusing strictly characteristics or qualities. His theory states that universals exist only where they are instantiated (the concept that it is impossible for a property to exist which is not had by some object). In simpler terms, he believes universals exist only in things, never apart from things–differing from his teacher, Plato, on this. Aristotle believes that a universal is identical in each of its instances. All round things are similar in that there is the same universal, characteristic, throughout.

These three laid the foundations of many of the believes of the rest of the Western world. Philosophers such as John Locker and Descartes use the theories these brilliant minds brought forth in their own works. I’m very interested to read your opinions, specifically on the Plato theory.

references:
http://www.iep.utm.edu/plato/
http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/
http://www.mrdowling.com/701-socrates.html
http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/socrates


Featured Documents

New York Ratification of the Bill of Rights
On September 25, 1790, by joint resolution, Congress passed 12 articles of amendment to the new Constitution, now known as the Bill of Rights.

The Treaty of Kanagawa
On March 31, 1854, the first treaty between Japan and the United States was signed. The Treaty was the result of an encounter between an elaborately planned mission to open Japan .

Whistler's Survey Etching
One of the known works completed by Whistler during his brief federal service, "Sketch of Anacapa Island," 1854.

The District of Columbia Emancipation Act
On April 16, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed a bill ending slavery in the District of Columbia. Passage of this act came 9 months before President Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation.

The Emancipation Proclamation
The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."

Lt. Henry O. Flipper
Born into slavery in Thomasville, Georgia, on March 21, 1856, Henry Ossian Flipper was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1873.

The 19th Amendment
By 1916, almost all of the major suffrage organizations were united behind the goal of a constitutional amendment. When New York adopted woman suffrage in 1917 and President Wilson changed his position to support an amendment in 1918, the political balance began to shift.

Japanese Surrender Document
. That morning, on the deck of the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay, the Japanese envoys Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and Gen. Yoshijiro Umezu signed their names on the Instrument of Surrender. The time was recorded as 4 minutes past 9 o'clock.

The Marshall Plan
On June 5, 1947, in a commencement address at Harvard University, Secretary of State George C. Marshall first called for American assistance in restoring the economic infrastructure of Europe. Western Europe responded favorably, and the Truman administration proposed legislation.

The North Atlantic Treaty
This alliance created a military and political complement to the Marshall Plan for European economic recovery by establishing a mutual defense pact against possible aggression from the Soviet Union.

A Letter from Jackie Robinson
Having captured the attention of the American public in the ballpark, he now delivered the message that racial integration in every facet of American society would enrich the nation, just as surely as it had enriched the sport of baseball.

Astronaut John Glenn and the Friendship 7 Mission
With great skill, courage, and grace, Glenn piloted the spacecraft manually as the autopilot function failed, and Mission Control wondered whether the capsule's life-saving heat shield would hold while reentering the atmosphere.

Apollo 11 Flight Plan
The flight plan describes tasks to be done 102 to 103 hours into the flight. Immediately after landing, Armstrong and Aldrin reviewed their lunar contact checklist and reached a decision on "stay/no stay." Armstrong then reported to Houston: "The Eagle has landed."

Magna Carta
With Magna Carta, King John placed himself and England's future sovereigns and magistrates within the rule of law.
(Courtesy of David M. Rubenstein.)

This page was last reviewed on April 26, 2019.
Contact us with questions or comments.


When Is Father's Day in My Country?

Father's Day, whenever it is celebrated around the world, is an opportunity to recognize fathers for their contributions to their families and to society. Each country sets its own dates for Father's Day.

Traditions vary for Father's Day celebrations around the world. For example, some countries link Father's Day to the Feast of St. Joseph on March 19, which celebrates Joseph of Nazareth, father of Jesus. In Germany, Father's Day is commonly celebrated by men loading wagons with beer and heading off into the woods. In Russia, Father's Day overlaps with their Defender of the Fatherland Day. So, while fathers are honored, many of them march in military parades in their hometowns on the same day.

To save you from forgetting this important date, this handy list summarizes when Father's Day falls in different countries around the world.


The Most Common Birthdays

September 9

September 9 is the most common birth date on the planet, which has seen an average of 12,301 births from 1994 to 2004 in the United States alone. All the people born on September ninth are usually conceived on December 17 of the previous year.

September 19

The second most common birthday is September 19. The United States recorded an average of 12,229 births on September 19 from 1994 to 2014. Theoretically, all the people who were born on September 19 were conceived on the day after Boxing Day in the previous year on December 27. The people born on the two most common birthdays on the planet were conceived during the holiday season in December.

September 12

The third most common birthday date in the world is September twelfth. According to the data from the National-Center for Health Statistics, there was an average of 12,225 births in the United States from 1994 to 2014. Since the total gestation period of human beings is 38 weeks, most of the people born on September 12 were conceived on December 20, the previous year.

September 17

September 17 is the fourth most popular birthday date when an average of 12,148 individuals are born in the United States. People born on September 17 were conceived on the Christmas day.


National curriculum

The national curriculum sets out the programmes of study and attainment targets for all subjects at all 4 key stages.

All local-authority-maintained schools in England must teach these programmes of study.

The majority of this national curriculum was introduced in September 2014, with English and maths coming into force for all year groups from September 2016.

The exception is the science curriculum which came into force for year 10 pupils in September 2016, and applies to year 11 pupils from September 2017.

See the National Archives website for information about the pre-2014 primary and secondary curriculums.

Curriculum by key stages

The complete framework and individual versions of the curriculum for primary and secondary key stages.

  • National curriculum in England: framework for key stages 1 to 4
    • 2 December 2014
    • Statutory guidance
    • 6 May 2015
    • Statutory guidance
    • 2 December 2014
    • Statutory guidance

    Programmes of study by subject

    Individual programmes of study and attainment targets for key stages 1 to 4.


    September 19, 2014 Day 242 of the Sixth Year - History

    This Act may be cited as the Refugee Protection Act of 2019 .

    The table of contents for this Act is as follows:

    Sec. 1. Short title table of contents. Sec. 2. Findings. Sec. 3. Definitions. TITLE I—Admission and protection of refugees, asylum seekers, and other vulnerable individuals Subtitle A—Refugees and asylum seekers Sec. 101. Modification of definition of refugee. Sec. 102. Multiple forms of relief available to refugees and asylum seekers. Sec. 103. Elimination of time limits on asylum applications. Sec. 104. Consideration of asylum claims. Sec. 105. Transparency in refugee determinations. Sec. 106. Employment authorization for asylum seekers and other individuals. Sec. 107. Admission of refugees and asylees as lawful permanent residents. Subtitle B—Protections for children and families Sec. 111. Keeping families together. Sec. 112. Protections for minors seeking asylum. Sec. 113. Fair day in court for kids. Subtitle C—Protections for other vulnerable individuals Sec. 121. Modification of physical presence requirements for aliens admitted in special immigrant status for persons who have served as translators for the Armed Forces. Sec. 122. Protection of stateless persons in the United States. Sec. 123. Protecting victims of terrorism from being defined as terrorists. Sec. 124. Protection for aliens interdicted at sea. Sec. 125. Enhanced protection for individuals seeking U visas, T visas, and protection under VAWA. Subtitle D—Protections relating to removal, detention, and prosecution Sec. 131. Prevention of erroneous in absentia orders of removal. Sec. 132. Scope and standard for review of removal orders. Sec. 133. Presumption of liberty for asylum seekers. Sec. 134. Procedures for ensuring accuracy and verifiability of sworn statements taken pursuant to expedited removal authority. Sec. 135. Inspections by immigration officers. Sec. 136. Study on effect on asylum claims of expedited removal provisions, practices, and procedures. Sec. 137. Alignment with Refugee Convention obligations by prohibiting criminal prosecution of refugees. Subtitle E—Refugee resettlement Sec. 141. Prioritization of family reunification in refugee resettlement process. Sec. 142. Numerical goals for annual refugee admissions. Sec. 143. Reform of refugee admissions consultation process. Sec. 144. Designation of certain groups of refugees for resettlement and admission of refugees in emergency situations. Sec. 145. Refugee resettlement radius requirements. Sec. 146. Study and report on contributions by refugees to the United States. Sec. 147. Update of reception and placement grants. Sec. 148. Resettlement data. Sec. 149. Refugee assistance. Sec. 150. Extension of eligibility period for Social Security benefits for certain refugees. Sec. 151. United States Emergency Refugee Resettlement Contingency Fund. Subtitle F—Miscellaneous provision Sec. 161. Authorization of appropriations. TITLE II—Refugee and asylum seeker processing in Western Hemisphere Sec. 201. Expansion of refugee and asylum seeker processing. Sec. 202. Strengthening regional humanitarian responses. Sec. 203. Information campaign on dangers of irregular migration. Sec. 204. Reporting requirement. Sec. 205. Identification, screening, and processing of refugees and other individuals eligible for lawful admission to the United States. Sec. 206. Central American Refugee Program. Sec. 207. Central American Minors Program. Sec. 208. Central American Family Reunification Parole Program. Sec. 209. Informational campaign case status hotline. TITLE III—Special immigrant visa programs Sec. 301. Improvement of the direct access program for U.S.-affiliated Iraqis. Sec. 302. Conversion of certain petitions. Sec. 303. Special immigrant visa program reporting requirement. Sec. 304. Improvements to application process for Afghan special immigrant visas. Sec. 305. Special immigrant status for certain surviving spouses and children. Sec. 306. Inclusion of certain special immigrants in the annual refugee survey. Sec. 307. United States refugee program priorities. Sec. 308. Special immigrant status for certain Syrian who worked for the United States Government in Syria. Sec. 309. Special immigrant status reporting requirement. Sec. 310. Processing mechanisms. TITLE IV—General provisions Sec. 401. Authorization of appropriations. Sec. 402. Determination of budgetary effects. 2. Findings

    Congress makes the following findings:

    In 2019, the world is in the midst of the worst global displacement crisis in history, with more than 70,800,000 forcibly displaced persons, including 25,900,000 refugees worldwide, over half of whom are children, according to estimates from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

    In 2018, less than 5 percent of global resettlement needs were met despite there being 1,400,000 refugees in need of third-country resettlement.

    The United States refugee admissions program is a life-saving solution that—

    is critical to global humanitarian efforts

    strengthens global security

    leverages United States foreign policy interests, including diplomatic and strategic interests of supporting allies who often host a significant and disproportionate share of refugees per capita

    stabilizes sensitive regions impacted by forced migration by ensuring that the United States shares responsibility for global refugee protection

    leverages refugee resettlement in the United States to encourage other countries to uphold the human rights of refugees, including by ensuring that refugees—

    have the right to work, the right to an education, and freedom of movement and

    are not returned to a place in which their life or freedom is at risk

    serves individuals and families in need of resettlement

    provides economic and cultural benefits to cities, States, and the United States as a whole and

    aligns with the international obligations of the United States, including under—

    the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, done at Geneva July 28, 1951 (as made applicable by the Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, done at New York January 31, 1967 (19 UST 6223)), of which the United States is a party

    the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, done at New York December 10, 1984, of which the United States is a party

    the Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, done at New York September 28, 1954 and

    the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, done at New York August 30, 1961.

    The United States has historically been, and should continue to be, a global leader in—

    responding to displacement crises around the world, including through the provision of robust humanitarian support

    promoting the safety, health, and well-being of refugees and displaced persons

    welcoming asylum seekers who seek safety and protecting other at-risk migrants, including survivors of torture, victims of trafficking, and stateless people and

    working alongside other countries to strengthen protection systems and support.

    The United States has steadily reduced—

    access to asylum protection through administrative policy and programmatic changes, including policies and operational decisions aimed at reducing or stopping the ability of asylum seekers to access the United States border and

    the resettlement of refugees, by way of two consecutive historically low annual refugee admissions goals after nearly 45 years during which the average annual United States refugee admissions goal was over 95,000 individuals.

    the most vetted travelers to enter the United States and

    subject to extensive screening checks, including in-person interviews, biometric data checks, and multiple interagency checks.

    For the sake of refugees, asylum seekers, other migrants, United States national diplomatic and strategic interests, and local communities that benefit from the presence of refugees, asylees, and other migrants, it is crucial for the United States to better protect refugees and asylum seekers through reforms, including—

    asylum reforms that ensure due process

    reforms to border migration enforcement, management, and adjudication systems that integrate stronger protection of, and ensure due process for, asylum seekers, children, victims of trafficking, stateless people, and other migrants, including—

    community-based alternatives to detention for asylum seekers and other vulnerable migrants

    improved detention conditions

    an emphasis on fairness in the arrest and adjudication process

    increased access to legal information and representation and

    a stronger commitment to child welfare in staffing and processes and

    ensure at least the historical average annual refugee admissions goal

    prevent refugee policy that discriminates based on race or religion

    improve opportunities for refugees to achieve family unity and

    update and strengthen support for refugees and the communities that welcome refugees.

    The people of the United States, and communities across the United States, overwhelmingly support refugees and asylum seekers, including people of faith, members of the Armed Forces, veterans, elected officials, and retired high-ranking officials.

    (1) Asylum seeker (A) In general

    The term asylum seeker means—

    any applicant for asylum under section 208 of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1158 )

    an intention to apply for asylum under that section or

    a fear of persecution and

    an intention to apply for withholding of removal pursuant to—

    section 241 of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1231 ) or

    the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, done at New York December 10, 1984 or

    a fear that the alien’s life or freedom would be threatened.

    The term asylum seeker includes any individual described in subparagraph (A) whose application for asylum or withholding of removal is pending judicial review.

    The term asylum seeker does not include an individual with respect to whom a final order denying asylum and withholding of removal has been entered if such order is not pending judicial review.

    (2) Best interest determination

    The term best interest determination means a formal process with procedural safeguards designed to give primary consideration to a child’s best interests in decision making.

    The term Department means the Department of Homeland Security.

    (4) Internally displaced persons

    The term internally displaced persons means persons or a group of persons who have been forced to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular due to armed conflict, generalized violence, violations of human rights, or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border.

    (5) International protection

    The term international protection means asylum status, refugee status, protection under the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, done at New York December 10, 1984, and other regional protection status available in the Western Hemisphere.

    The term Secretary means the Secretary of Homeland Security.

    I Admission and protection of refugees, asylum seekers, and other vulnerable individuals A Refugees and asylum seekers 101. Modification of definition of refugee (a) In general

    Section 101(a)(42) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(42) ) is amended to read as follows:

    The term refugee means any person who—

    is outside any country of such person’s nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided and

    is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution, or a well-founded fear of persecution, on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion or

    in such circumstances as the President may specify, after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 207(e))—

    is within the country of such person’s nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing and

    is persecuted, or who has a well-founded fear of persecution, on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

    The term refugee does not include any person who ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of any person on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. A person who establishes that his or her actions were committed under duress or while the person was younger than 18 years of age shall not be considered to have ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in persecution under this subparagraph.

    For purposes of determinations under this Act—

    a person who has been forced to abort a pregnancy or to undergo involuntary sterilization, or who has been persecuted for failure or refusal to undergo such a procedure or for other resistance to a coercive population control program, shall be deemed to have been persecuted on account of political opinion

    a person who has a well-founded fear that he or she will be forced to undergo such a procedure or be subject to persecution for such failure, refusal, or resistance shall be deemed to have a well-founded fear of persecution on account of political opinion and

    the term particular social group means, without any additional requirement not listed below, any group whose members—

    a characteristic that is immutable or fundamental to identity, conscience, or the exercise of human rights or

    a past experience or voluntary association that, due to its historical nature, cannot be changed or

    are perceived as a group by society.

    The burden of proof shall be on the applicant to establish that the applicant is a refugee.

    To establish that the applicant is a refugee, persecution—

    shall be on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion and

    may be established by demonstrating that—

    a protected ground is at least one reason for the applicant’s persecution or fear of persecution

    the persecution or feared persecution would not have occurred or would not occur in the future but for a protected ground or

    the persecution or feared persecution had or will have the effect of harming the person because of a protected ground.

    Where past or feared persecution by a nonstate actor is unrelated to a protected asylum ground, the causal nexus link is established if the state’s failure to protect the asylum applicant from the nonstate actor is on account of a protected asylum ground.

    Section 208(b)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1158(b)(1) ) is amended by striking section 101(a)(42)(A) each place it appears and inserting section 101(a)(42)(A)(i) .

    102. Multiple forms of relief available to refugees and asylum seekers (a) In general

    An applicant for admission as a refugee may simultaneously pursue admission under any visa category for which the applicant may be eligible.

    (b) Asylum applicants eligible for diversity visas

    Section 204(a)(1)(I) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1154(a)(1)(I) ) is amended by adding at the end the following:

    An asylum seeker in the United States who is notified that he or she is eligible for an immigrant visa pursuant to section 203(c) may file a petition with the district director that has jurisdiction over the district in which the asylum seeker resides (or, in the case of an asylum seeker who is or was in removal proceedings, the immigration court in which the removal proceeding is pending or was adjudicated) to adjust status to that of an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.

    A petition under subclause (I) shall—

    be filed not later than 30 days before the end of the fiscal year for which the petitioner receives notice of eligibility for the visa and

    contain such information and be supported by such documentary evidence as the Secretary of State may require.

    The district director or immigration court shall attempt to adjudicate each petition under this clause before the last day of the fiscal year for which the petitioner was selected. Notwithstanding clause (ii)(II), if the district director or immigration court is unable to complete such adjudication during such fiscal year, the adjudication and adjustment of status of the petitioner may take place after the end of such fiscal year.

    Section 208(a)(2) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1158(a)(2) ) is amended—

    in subparagraph (A), by inserting or the Secretary of Homeland Security after Attorney General each place such term appears

    by striking subparagraphs (B) and (D)

    by redesignating subparagraph (C) as subparagraph (B)

    in subparagraph (B), as redesignated, by striking subparagraph (D) and inserting subparagraphs (C) and (D) and

    by inserting after subparagraph (B), as redesignated, the following:

    Notwithstanding subparagraph (B), an application for asylum of an alien may be considered if the alien demonstrates, to the satisfaction of the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security, the existence of changed circumstances that materially affect the applicant’s eligibility for asylum.

    (D) Motion to reopen certain meritorious claims

    Notwithstanding subparagraph (B) or section 240(c)(7), an alien may file a motion to reopen an asylum claim during the 2-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of the Refugee Protection Act of 2019 if the alien—

    was denied asylum based solely on a failure to meet the 1-year application filing deadline in effect on the date on which the application was filed

    was granted withholding of removal to the alien’s country of nationality (or, in the case of a person having no nationality, to the country of last habitual residence) under section 241(b)(3)

    has not obtained lawful permanent residence in the United States pursuant to any other provision of law and

    is not subject to the safe third country exception under subparagraph (A) or to a bar to asylum under subsection (b)(2) and

    was not denied asylum as a matter of discretion or

    was denied asylum based solely on the implementation of—

    the policy memorandum of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services entitled Guidance for Processing Reasonable Fear, Credible Fear, Asylum, and Refugee Claims in Accordance with Matter of A–B– (PM–602–0162), dated July 11, 2018

    the memorandum of the Office of the Principal Legal Advisor of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement entitled Litigating Domestic Violence-Based Persecution Claims Following Matter of A–B– , dated July 11, 2018

    the interim final rule of the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice entitled Aliens Subject to a Bar on Entry Under Certain Presidential Proclamations Procedures for Protection Claims (83 Fed. Reg. 55934 (November 9, 2019))

    Presidential Proclamation 9822, issued on November 9, 2018 (83 Fed. Reg. 57661)

    the migrant protection protocols announced by the Secretary of Homeland Security on December 20, 2018 (or any successor protocols)

    the policy memorandum of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services entitled Guidance for Implementing Section 235(b)(2)(C) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the Migrant Protection Protocols (PM–602–0169), dated January 28, 2019 or

    any other policy memorandum of the Department of Homeland Security to implement the protocols described in subclause (V).

    104. Consideration of asylum claims (a) Conditions for granting asylum

    Section 208(b)(1)(B) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1158(b)(1)(B) ) is amended—

    in clause (ii), by striking the last sentence and inserting the following: If the trier of fact determines that the applicant should provide evidence that corroborates otherwise credible testimony, the trier of fact shall provide notice and allow the applicant a reasonable opportunity to file such evidence. The trier of fact may not require such evidence if the applicant does not have the evidence and demonstrates that he or she cannot reasonably obtain the evidence. Evidence shall not be considered reasonably obtainable if procurement of such evidence would reasonably endanger the life or safety of any person.

    by striking clause (iii) and

    by inserting after clause (ii) the following:

    (iii) Supporting evidence accepted

    Direct or circumstantial evidence, including evidence that the government of the applicable country is unable or unwilling to protect individuals of the applicant’s race, religion, nationality, particular social group, or political opinion, or that the legal or social norms of the country tolerate persecution against individuals of the applicant’s race, religion, nationality, particular social group, or political opinion, may establish that persecution is on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

    (iv) Credibility determination (I) In general

    Subject to subclause (II), a trier of fact may conduct a credibility assessment in the context of evaluating an applicant’s claim for asylum.

    (II) Procedural and substantive requirements (aa) Objectivity

    Decisions regarding credibility shall be made objectively, impartially, and individually.

    A credibility assessment under this clause may only be conducted on the material facts of the applicant’s claim. The perception of the trier of fact with respect to the applicant’s general truthfulness or trustworthiness shall not be relevant to assessing credibility of material facts.

    (cc) Detail and specificity

    In assessing credibility, a trier of fact may consider the detail and specificity of information provided by the applicant, the internal consistency of the applicant’s statements, and the consistency of the applicant’s statements with available external information. In considering such information and statements, the trier of fact shall consider the applicant’s contextual circumstances, including—


    OKâlaKatiget Society

    In English means “People who talk or communicate with each other”. It was incorporated in 1982. Stationed in Nain, Labrador the Society provides a regional, native communication service for the people on the North Coast and the Lake Melville region of Labrador. People have come to rely on the Society for information and entertainment via radio and television. A primary part of our mandate is to preserve and promote the language and culture of the Inuit within the region.

    We are a non-profit, registered charitable organization, funded since 1984 by the Department of Canadian Heritage. The Society continues to seek alternate funding, explore ways in which it can diversify its funding base, and enter into contracts with outside and/or local organizations to produce special projects.

    Staffing of the OKâlaKatiget Society is made up of 12 production and administrative staff members. Visit our Staff page for more information.

    Board of Directors of the Society is made up of one Inuk representative from each North Coast Community along with one from North West River and one from Happy Valley Goose bay along with a representative from the Nunatsiavut Government. This makes up a diverse, eight-member board with an executive that includes the President, Vice President and Secretary. To learn more visit our Directors page.

    Both radio and television departments have received awards from the National Aboriginal Communications and The Inuit Broadcasting Corporation for quality in daily programming and documentary feature reporting in radio. Best First Language programming was also awarded to television.


    1933: Harlem Opera House, N.Y.

    For one week commencing Saturday 14 January 1933, Hall returned to Harlem, NY, to appear in a music revue produced by Leonard Harper at the Harlem Opera House. A journalist from the Pittsburgh Courier newspaper who published under the initials T.Y. wrote in his review of Hall's performance that "she was excellent" and that he was so thrilled to be at the show he totally forgot to jot down on his notepad the title of the songs Hall performed. He did however apologise for this mishap. He also mentioned that Hall was accompanied on stage by a guitar 'troubadour' and a blind pianist (i.e., Art Tatum) who, he declared, "can really play". [75]


    Butchers of Good Taste!!

    Muirhead butcher Stewart Collins collected more awards for his innovative meat products this week when the 2011 Meat To Go Awards were presented on Sunday 8th May at the Scottish Meat Trades Fair in Perth.

    Their Marinated Lamb with Orange Mint had that winning formula this time earning butchers S Collins & Son a Gold Award in the “Meat to Go” event organised by the Scottish Federation of Meat Traders for Scotland’s Craft Butchers.


    Jack Broussine of Quality Meat Scotland’s Scotch Butchers Club, sponsor of the competition said:- “The Meat to Go Awards once again showcase the high levels of skill and innovation prevalent in the independent butcher’s sector of the Scottish red meat industry. Without doubt this event leads to consumers being tempted with even more exciting new products when shopping at the local butcher.”

    Billy McFarlane, President of organisers, the Scottish Federation of Meat Traders said:-
    “Scottish Craft Butchers are great innovators and react quickly to customers demands for tasty convenient new products. These awards are an illustration of the reason why so many people are shopping at independent Craft Butchers.”


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