Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad

Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad

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Ghiyāth al-Dīn Muḥammad Khwāndamīr

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Ghiyāth al-Dīn Muḥammad Khwāndamīr, Khwāndamīr also spelled Khondamir, (born c. 1475, Herāt, Khorāsān [now in Afghanistan]—died 1534/37, buried in Delhi, India), Persian historian, considered one of the greatest historians of the Timurid period.

Grandson of the Persian historian Mirkhwānd, Khwāndamīr entered the service of Badīʿ al-Zamān, the eldest son of the Timurid ruler of Herāt, Ḥusayn Bāyqarā. Khwāndamīr was an ambassador to the Uzbek ruler Muḥammad Shaybānī when the latter captured the city of Herāt in 1507 he also witnessed the Iranian monarch Shāh Esmāʿīl I Ṣafavi take the city and defeat the Uzbek ruler in 1510.

Khwāndamīr then retired temporarily and began writing. Except for a brief period spent with the eldest son of his former patron, Khwāndamīr seems to have settled in Herāt until his departure for India in 1528. Reaching Agra, he entered the service of Bābur, heir to the Timurid tradition and the first of the great Mughal rulers of India, and accompanied him on various missions. After Bābur’s death the historian served his son, Humāyūn. Returning from a march on Gujarat, Khwāndamīr fell ill and died.

A prolific writer, Khwāndamīr’s most outstanding works are Khulāṣat al-akhbār (“The Perfection of the Narratives”), written in 1499–1500 for the Timurid minister and author Mir ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī Ḥabīb al-siyār (“The Friend of Biographies”), a general history finished in 1524, the most valuable sections of which deal with the reigns of Sultan Ḥusayn Bāyqarā and Shāh Esmāʿīl I Ṣafavi the seventh and final volume of the history Rawḍat al-ṣafā (“The Garden of Purity”) of his grandfather, Mirkhwānd and the Humāyūn-nāmeh (“The Book of Humāyūn”), in which he describes the buildings and institutions of the great Mughal empire.

  1. Ahmad Hasan Dani et al. History of civilizations of Central Asia, vol. IV, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass Pub. (1999) ISBN 81-208-1409-6, p182
  2. Enc. Islam, article: Muhammad, Mu'izz al-Din
  3. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle, Vol. I, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 269.
  4. Farooqui Salma Ahmed, A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century, (Dorling Kindersley Pvt., 2011), 53-54.
  5. Michel Biran, The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 70.
  6. Rafis Abazov, Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 43.
  7. Rafis Abazov, Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia, 43.
  • Bosworth, C. E. (1968). "The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000�)". In Frye, R. N. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5: The Saljuq and Mongol periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1�. ISBN 0-521-06936-X.
  • Blandford, Neil Jones, Bruce (1985). The World's Most Evil Men.
  • Cawthorne, Nigel (1999). The World's Worst Atrocities.
  • Man, John (2004). Genghis Kahn - Life, Death and Resurrection.

Ala ad-Din Muhammad II (Persian: علاءالدین محمد خوارزمشاه full name: Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul-Fath Muhammad Sanjar ibn Tekish) was the Shah of the Khwarezmian Empire from 1200 to 1220. His ancestor was a Turkic slave who eventually became a viceroy of a small province named Khwarizm.[citation needed] He is perhaps best known for inciting the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia, which resulted in the complete and utter destruction of his empire. After his father Tekish died, Muhammad succeeded him. Right after his accession, however, his domains were invaded by the two Ghurid brothers Ghiyas ad-Din Ghori and Mu'izz al-Din. Within weeks, the two brothers had moved their armies westwards into Khorasan. Once they had captured Nishapur, Mu'izz al-Din was sent on an expedition towards Ray, but he let his troops get out of control and got little further than Gurgan, earning criticism from Ghiyas which led to the only reported quarrel between the brothers.[1][2]

Ghiyas died at Herat in 1202 after months of illness. Muhammad II used this opportunity to invade the domains of the Ghurid Empire, and besieged Herat. Mu'izz, however, managed to repel him from Herat and then pursued him to Khwarezm, besieging Gurganj, his capital. Muhammad desperately requested aid from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, who sent an army to aid Muhammad. Mu'izz, because of the pressure from the Kara-Khitans, was forced to relieve the siege and retreat. However, on his way to his domains in Ghur, he was defeated at Andkhud in 1204.[3][4] Mu'izz al-Din was later assassinated in 1206, throwing the Ghurid Empire into a civil war. During the civil war, Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud managed to emerge victorious.

However, Ghiyath's Turkic general Tajuddin Yildoz seized Ghazni from the Ghurid rulers of Bamiyan, but shortly recognized the authority of Ghiyath. Ghiyath, not glad about Tajuddin controlling Ghazni, and not daring to leave Ghur unprotected, requested help from the Muhammad II. Muhammad, however, instead invaded the domains of Ghiyath, capturing Balkh and Tirmidh.[5] However, during his invasion he was captured by the Kara-Khitan Khanate. Thirteen months later, Muhammad was freed from captivity, and once again invaded the domains of Ghiyath, and captured Herat. Muhammad then invaded the Ghurid heartland of Ghur, and captured Ghiyath. Ghiyath then agreed to recognize Muhammad's authority.

Muhammad II then captured Samarkand (captured by Karakhanids in 1208) in 1207 from the Kara Khitay, Tabaristan in 1210 from Bavandids and Transoxiana from Western Karakhanids. He pursued expansionist policy and conquered Tashkent and Fergana from Western Karakhanids and regions of Makran and Balochistan from Ghurids and Atabegs of Azerbaijan become his vassals in 1211. He finally destroyed Western Karakhanids in 1212 and Ghurids in 1215 annexing with their remainder territories. During 1212 the city of Samarkand revolted killing 8,000�,000 Khwarezmians living there. Muhammad, in retaliation, sacked the city and executed 10,000 citizens of Samarkand.[6]

By 1217, he had conquered all the lands from the river Jaxartes to the Persian Gulf. He declared himself shah and demanded formal recognition from the caliph in Baghdad. When the caliph an-Nasir rejected his claim, Ala ad-Din Muhammad gathered an army and marched towards Baghdad to depose an-Nasir. However, when crossing the Zagros Mountains, the shah's army was caught in a blizzard.[7] Thousands of warriors died. With the army decimated, the generals had no choice but to return home.

In 1218, a small contingent of Mongols crossed borders in pursuit of an escaped enemy general. Upon successfully retrieving him, Genghis Khan made contact with the Shah. Having only recently conquered two-thirds of what would one day be China, Genghis was looking to open trade relations, but having heard exaggerated reports of the Mongols, the Shah believed this gesture was only a ploy to invade his land. Genghis sent emissaries to Khwarezm (reports vary – one stating a group of 100 Muslim merchants with a single Mongol leading them, others state 450) to emphasize his hope for a trade road. The Shah, in turn, had one of his governors openly accuse the party of spying, their rich goods were seized and the party was arrested.

Trying to maintain diplomacy, Genghis sent an envoy of three men to the Shah, to give him a chance to disclaim all knowledge of the governor's actions and hand him over to the Mongols for punishment. The shah executed the envoy (again, some sources claim one man was executed, some claim all three were), and then immediately had the Mongol merchant party (Muslim and Mongol alike) put to death. These events led Genghis to retaliate with a force of 100,000 to 150,000 men that crossed the Jaxartes in 1219 and sacked the cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Otrar and others. Muhammad's capital city, Urgench, followed soon after.

Genghis Khan's revenge was considered brutal, even by Mongol standards. His campaign resulted in the complete annihilation of Khwarezm cities, destruction of countless historical artifacts and records, and arguably the bloodiest massacre the world saw until the 20th century.

Ala ad-Din Muhammad fled and sought refuge throughout Khorasan, but died of pleurisy on an island in the Caspian Sea near the port of Abaskun some weeks later.

Ala al-Din Atsiz

Ala al-Din Atsiz (Persian: علاء الدین دراست ‎), was Sultan of the Ghurid dynasty from 1213 to 1214. He was the relative and successor of Baha al-Din Sam III.

Ala al-Din Atsiz
Sultan of the Ghurid dynasty
PredecessorBaha al-Din Sam III
SuccessorAla al-Din Ali
Bornca. 1159
FatherAla al-Din Husayn
ReligionSunni Islam

Ala al-Din Atsiz was the son Ala al-Din Husayn, who died in 1161. At the death of Ala al-Din Husayn, Atsiz was very young and the succession passed to his brother Sayf al-Din Muhammad, who shortly died in 1163, and was succeeded by his cousin Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. When Atsiz became an adult, he began serving Ghiyath and the latter's brother Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad. After the death of Ghiyath in 1202, the Ghurid chieftains supported Atsiz to become the new ruler of the Ghurid dynasty. However, Mu'izz al-Din managed keep him away from the Ghurid chieftains and send him to the court of his relatives in Bamiyan, where Atsiz's daughter married the eldest son of the Bamiyan ruler Baha al-Din Sam II.

After the death of Mu'izz al-Din in 1206, his nephew Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud succeeded him as the ruler of the Ghurid dynasty. Atsiz, however, challenged the rule of Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud and demanded the throne for himself, and requested aid from the Khwarazmian dynasty, who declined his request. Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud later died in 1212, and was succeeded by his son Baha al-Din Sam III, who was one year later carried by the Khwarazmians to Khwarezm, [1] who finally agreed to help Atsiz, and made him ascend the Ghurid throne.

One year later, however, Atsiz was killed by the Turkish ghulam Tajuddin Yildoz, and was succeeded by his cousin Ala al-Din Ali.

Muhammad of Ghor

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (Persian: معز الدین محمد غوری ‎), born Shihab ad-Din (1149 – March 15, 1206), also known as Muhammad of Ghor, was the Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206. He is credited with laying the foundation of Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent, which lasted for several centuries. He reigned over a territory spanning over parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Northern India, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

Mu'izz ad-Din took the city of Ghazni in 1173 to avenge the death of his ancestor Muhammad ibn Suri at the hands of Mahmud of Ghazni and used it as a launching-pad for expansion into northern India. [1] In the meantime, he assisted his brother Ghiyath in his contest with the Khwarazmian Empire for the lordship of Khorasan in Western Asia. In 1175, Mu'izz captured Multan from the Hamid Ludi dynasty, and also took Uch in 1175. He also annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186, the last haven of his Persianised rivals. [1] After consolidating his rule in North-West domain Mu'izz al-Din wish to invade heart of Northern India which was then under control of Rajputs. [2]

A confused struggle then ensued among the remaining Ghuri leaders, and the Khwarizmi were able to take over the Ghurid Sultanate in about 1215. Though the Ghurids' empire was short-lived, and petty Ghurid states remained in power until the arrival of the Timurids, Mu'izz's conquests laid the foundations of Muslim rule in India. Qutbu l-Din Aibak, a former slave (Mamluk) of Mu'izz, was the first Sultan of Delhi. Mu'izz's campaigns resulted in the deaths of approximately 100,000 Hindus [3] , with many Hindu women and children being sold into slavery in Islamic countries [4] .

Early life

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad was born in 1149 in the Ghor region of Khorasan. The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father, Baha al-Din Sam I, was the local ruler of the Ghor region at the time. [1] Mu'izz also had an elder brother named Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. During their early life, Mu'izz and Ghiyath were imprisoned by their uncle Ala al-Din Husayn, but were later released by the latter's son Sayf al-Din Muhammad. [5] When Sayf died in 1163, the Ghurid nobles supported Ghiyath, and helped him ascend the throne. Ghiyath shortly gave Mu'izz control over Istiyan and Kajuran. However, the throne was challenged by several Ghurid chiefs Mu'izz aided Ghiyath in defeating and killing a rival Ghurid chief named Abu'l Abbas.

Early campaigns

Ghiyath was then challenged by his uncle Fakhr al-Din Masud, who claimed the throne for himself, and had allied with Tadj al-Din Yildiz, the Seljuq governor of Herat, and Balkh. [6] However, the coalition was defeated by Ghiyath and Mu'izz at Ragh-i Zar. The brothers managed to kill the Seljuq governor during the battle, and then conquered Zamindawar, Badghis, Gharjistan, and Urozgan. Ghiyath, however, spared Fakhr al-Din and restored him as the ruler of Bamiyan. Mu'izz, after returning from an expedition from Sistan, was shortly awarded with Kandahar by his brother. In 1173, the two brothers invaded Ghazni, and defeated the Oghuz Turks who had captured the city from the Ghaznavids. Mu'izz was then appointed as the ruler of Ghazni. [6]

In 1175, the two brothers conquered Herat from its Seljuq governor, Baha al-Din Toghril, and also managed to conquer Pushang. The ruler of Sistan, Taj al-Din Harb ibn Muhammad, shortly acknowledged the sovereignty of the Ghurids, and so did the Oghuz Turks dominating Kirman. [1]

During the same period, the Khwarazmian Sultan Shah, who was expelled from Khwarezm by his brother Tekish, took refuge in Ghor and requested military aid from Ghiyath. Ghiyath, however, did not help the latter. Sultan Shah managed to get help from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, and began plundering the northern Ghurid domains.

Invasion of India

After having helped his brother in expanding the western frontiers of the Ghurid Empire, he began to focus on India. Mu'izz's campaign against the Qarmatians rulers of Multan in 1175 had ended in victory. [7] He turned south, and led his army from Multan to Uch and then across the desert towards the Chaulukya capital of Anhilwara (modern day Patan in Gujarat) in 1178. On the way, Muizz suffered a defeat at the Battle of Kayadara, during his first campaign against an Indian ruler. [7] Gujarat was ruled by the young Chaulukya ruler Mularaja II the Chaulukya forces included the armies of their feudatories such as the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Jalor Chahamana ruler Kirtipala, and the Arbuda Paramara ruler Dharavarsha. [8] Mu'izz's army had suffered greatly during the march across the desert, and the Chaulukyas inflicted a major defeat on him at the village of Kayadara (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara). [7] The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Multan. [7] However, Mu'izz was able to take Peshawar and Sialkot.

In 1186, Mu'izz, along with Ghiyath, ended the Ghaznavid dynasty after having captured Lahore and executed the Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau-Malik. [9]

Mu'izz shortly returned to Ghor, and along with the rulers of Bamiyan and Sistan, aided his brother Ghiyath in defeating the forces of Sultan Shah at Merv in 1190. He also annexed most of the latter's territories in Khorasan.

First Battle of Tarain

In 1191, Mu'izz proceeded towards Indian Sub-continent through the Khyber Pass in modern-day Pakistan and was successful in reaching Punjab. Mu'izz captured a fortress, Bathinda in present-day Punjab state on the northwestern frontier of Prithvīrāj Chauhān's kingdom. After appointing a Qazi Zia-ud-Din as governor of the fortress, [10] he received the news that Prithviraj's army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai were on their way to besiege the fortress. The two armies eventually met near the town of Tarain, 14 miles from Thanesar in present-day Haryana. The battle was marked by the initial attack of mounted Mamluk archers to which Prithviraj responded by counter-attacking from three sides and thus dominating the battle. Mu'izz mortally wounded Govind Tai in personal combat and in the process was himself wounded, whereupon his army retreated [11] and Prithvīrāj's army was deemed victorious. [12]

According to Rima Hooja and Kaushik Roy, Govind Tal was wounded by Ghori, and later fought at the second battle of Tarain, where he was killed. [13] [14]

Second Battle of Tarain

On his return to Ghor, Mu'izz made preparations to avenge the defeat. According to Firishta, the Rajput army consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 cavalry and infantry (most likely a gross exaggeration). [15] Minhaj-i-Siraj, stated Mu'izz brought 120,000 fully armored men to the battle in 1192. [15]

Prithviraj had called his banners but hoped to buy time as his banners (other Rajputs under him or his allies) had not arrived. Before the next day, Mu'izz attacked the Rajput army before dawn. Rajputs had a tradition of fighting from sunrise to sunset. Although they were able to quickly form formations, they suffered losses due to surprise attack before sunrise. The Rajput army was eventually defeated and Prithviraj was taken prisoner and subsequently executed. [12]

After Prithviraj's defeat, Mu'izz raided Varanasi. Ibn Asir's Kamil-ut-Tawarikh states that:

"The slaughter of Hindus (at Varanasi) was immense none were spared except women and children, and the carnage of men went on until the earth was weary. The women and children were spared so that they could be enslaved and sold in Islamic countries. At the same time, the Buddhist complex at Sarnath was also sacked, and the Bhikshus were slaughtered". [16]

Further campaigns

When the state of Ajmer failed to fulfill the tribute demands as per the custom after a defeat, Qutbu l-Din Aibak, in 1193 took over Ajmer [17] and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. [18] Hindu kingdoms like Saraswati, Samana, Kohram and Hansi were captured without any difficulty. Finally his forces advanced on Delhi, capturing it soon after the Battle of Chandwar, defeating Raja Jaichand of Kannauj. [19] Within a year, Mu'izz controlled northern Rajasthan and the northern part of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. [20] The Kingdom of Ajmer was then given over to Golā, on condition that he send regular tributes to the Ghurids. [ citation needed ]

Mu'izz returned west to Ghazni to deal with the threat to his western frontiers from the unrest in Iran, but he appointed Aibak as his regional governor for northern India. His armies, mostly under Turkic and Khalaj generals such as Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, continued to advance through northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Followed by his conquest of Delhi. An army led by Qutbu l-Din Aibak, Mu'izz's deputy in India, invaded in ca. 1195–97 and plundered Anahilapataka. [21]

War with the Khwarezmians and supreme leader of the Ghurids

In 1200, Tekish died, and was succeeded by Muhammad II of Khwarezm (who took the honorific name 'Ala' al-Din). Among the first to hear of this were Ghiyath and Mu'izz al-Din. Within weeks the two brothers had moved their armies westwards into Khorasan. Once they had captured Nishapur, Mu'izz al-Din was sent on an expedition towards Ray, but he let his troops get out of control and got little further than Gurgan, earning criticism from Ghiyath which led to the only reported quarrel between the brothers. [22]

Ghiyath died at Herat in 1202 after months of illness. Mu'izz, who had quickly returned to Ghor from India, obtained the support of Ghurid nobles, and was crowned as Sultan of the Ghurid Empire at Firuzkuh. Just after his ascension, Muhammad II invaded his domains, and besieged Herat. Mu'izz managed to repel him from Herat and then pursued him to Khwarezm, besieging Gurganj, their capital. Muhammad desperately requested aid from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, who sent an army to aid Muhammad. Mu'izz, because of the pressure from the Kara-Khitans, was forced to relieve the siege and retreat. However, on his way to his domains in Ghur, he was defeated at Andkhud in 1204. [23] [24] Mu'izz, however managed to reach Ghur, and prepared a counter-attack against the Khwarmezians and Kara-Khitans. A revolt shortly broke out in Punjab and the surrounding regions, which forced Mu'izz to make order in the region before mounting a counter-attack against his enemies.

Final days and death

In 1206, Mu'izz, having settled the affairs in India, [25] left all the affairs in India in hands of his slave Qutb al-Din Aibak.

On his way back to Ghazni, his caravan rested at Dhamiak near Sohawa (which is near the city of Jhelum in the Punjab province of modern-day Pakistan). He was assassinated on March 15, 1206 while offering his evening prayers. [ citation needed ] His killers are unconfirmed. It may have been the Khokhars or Ismāʿīlīs. [26] One source states that he was assassinated by the Nizari Ismaili Assassins

In Indian folklore, the death of Mu'izz was caused by Prithviraj Chauhan, [27] but this is not borne out by historical documents and Prithviraj died much earlier before the death of Mu'izz. [28] [29]


Mu'izz had no offspring, but he treated his Turkic slaves as his sons, who were trained both as soldiers and administrators and provided with the best possible education. Many of his competent and loyal slaves rose to positions of importance in Mu'izz's army and government.

When a courtier lamented that the Sultan had no male heirs, Mu'izz retorted:

"Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions, and who, after me, will take care to preserve my name in the Khuṭbah (Friday sermon) throughout these territories." [ This quote needs a citation ]

Mu'izz's prediction proved true. After his assassination, his Empire was divided amongst his slaves. Most notably:

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Ghiyath al-Din Muhàmmad

Ghiyath al-Din Muhàmmad (abans del regnat Xams al-Din Muhàmmad) fou sultà gúrida de la família xansabànida del Ghur. Era fill de Baha al-Din Sam i cosí del seu predecessor Sayf al-Din Muhàmmad al que va succeir a la seva mort el 1163. Al pujar al tron va agafar el lakab de Ghiyath al-Din amb el qual fou conegut. Va treballar plegat amb el seu germà Shihab al-Din Muhàmmad (més tard Muizz al-Din Muhàmmad) Ghiyath al-Din va dirigir les conquestes cap a l'oest disputant el Khurasan als khwarizmshahs (aleshores encara vassalls dels kara-khitay), i Shihab al-Din Muhàmmad va dirigir la lluita a l'Índia on va establir les bases pel futur sultanat de Delhi. Ghiyat al-Din va mantenir estretes relacions amb el califat abbàssida.

Ghiyath al-Din Muhàmmad

Mort1202 (62/63 anys)
Dades personals
FillsGhiyath al-Din Mahmud
PareBaha al-Din Sam (fill d'Izz al-Din)
GermansMuizz al-Din Muhàmmad

Fakhr al-Din Masud, sulta shansabànida de Bamian va aspirar al poder (segurament el 1163) i es va aliar als governadors turcs d'Herat, Tadj al-Din Yildiz, i de Balkh, Ala al-Din Kamač, però la coalició fou derrotada pels dos germans shansabànides de Ghur a Ragh-i Zar a la vall de l'Hari Rud (o Heri Rud). Ghiyath al-Din va fer campanya aleshores a Zamindawar, al Badghis i al Ghardjistan, regions que va annexionar

L'emir saffàrida de Sistan, Tadj al-Din Harb, va reconèixer la sobirania de Ghiyath al-Din, i el mateix van fer tot seguit els oghuz que dominaven Kirman (després de la caiguda de la branca seljúcida local). Vers el 1162 una banda d'oghuz s'havia apoderat tanmateix de Gazni quan fou abandonada pel sultà gaznèvida Khusraw Malik (1160-1187), i hi van poder restar fins que el 1173/1174 Giyath al-Din va conquerir Gazni on va instal·lar com a sultà al seu germà Shihab al-Din Muhammad amb el lakab de Muizz al-Din.

El 1175 va conquerir Herat al turc Baha al-Din Toghril i la va dominar durant un temps indeterminat. En aquest moment Sultan Shah Khwarizmshah, expulsat de Khwarizm pel seu germà Ala al-Din Tekish, amb el suport dels kara-khitay, es va apoderar del nord del Khurasan i va disputar als gúrides Herat i Badghis. La lluita va durar algun temps però amb el suport de les branques de Bamian i de Gazni, i forces vingudes de Sistan, va derrotar a Sultan Shah prop de Merv (1190) i el va fer presoner annexionant la major part dels seus territoris al Khurasan als dominis gúrides.

El 1198 Baha al-Din Sam I de Bamian va ocupar Balkh al senyor local turc vassall dels kara-khitay. Poc després va esclatar la guerra entre els khwrizmshahs amb suport kara-khitay i els gúrides (instigats pel califa de Bagdad contra Khwarizm, que l'amenaçava a Pèrsia occidental). Tekish khwarizmshah va atacar Herat mentre els kara-khitay envaïen Guzgan, però els dos foren derrotats pels gúrides. Mort Tekish el 1200, Ghiyath al-Din va ocupar la part del Khurasan que dominava i va arribar a l'oest fins a Bistam a la regió de Kumis un príncep gúrida, Diya al-Din Ali (fill de Shudja al-Din, germà ja difunt d'Ala al-Din Husayn, que més tard fou sultà) fou instal·lat com a governador o malik de Nishapur.

Ghiyath al-Din Muhàmmad va morir a Herat el 1203 després d'uns mesos de malaltia que l'havien incapacitat per regnar el seu germà Muizz al-Din Muhàmmad havia retornat de l'Índia hi havia assolit el govern, i va esdevenir el successor.


Oljeitu, Oldjeytu, Oldjeitu, Oljeytu, Öljaitü, Olcayto o Uljeitu —en mongol Өлзийт Хаан— de nom complet Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad Karbanda, després Khudabanda que vol dir "home de Déu", Oljeitu Sultan —en persa محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو) — fou el vuitè khan ilkhànida de Pèrsia del 1304 al 1316. El seu nom ("Ölziit" o Oljeitu) vol dir "beneït" en mongol (1262 -16 de desembre de 1316) Era fill del khan Arghun, germà i successor de Mahmud Ghazan i besnét d'Hulagu el fundador de la dinastia. Sent infant fou batejat amb el nom Nicolau en honor del papa Nicolau IV amb el qual el seu pare havia tingut tractes, però després es va fer budista quan el seu germà Ghazan es va fer musulmà sunnita, el va seguir i va oscil·lar entre hanafites i xafiïtes fins que es va passar al xiisme.

Va pujar al tron succeint el seu germà i va establir la seva residència principal a Sultaniyya al sud-est de la moderna Zandjan, ciutat fundada per Arghun però que no es va acabar fins al 1313. De fet encara que hi passava temporades tenia costums nòmades i per tant residia a diversos llocs. Va gaudir d'un regnat excepcionalment pacífic, durant el qual només es van produir tres expedicions militars: el 1307 quan va intentar amb grans mitjans conquerir la província de Gilan a la vora de la mar Càspia el 1312/1313 quan va organitzar la darrera expedició a territori mameluc assetjant sense èxit Rahbat al-Sham (Rahba) a l'Eufrates i el 1314 quan va haver de marxar cap a l'est per oposar-se a una invasió del Khorasan pel mongols de Txagatai.

El gran visir de Ghazan, l'historiador Raixid-ad-Din, va restar en funcions en canvi el seu col·lega Sal al-Din Sawaji fou destituït i executat el 1312 i substituït per Tadj al-Din Ali Shah que no es va entendre amb Rashid al-Din i finalment es va acordar que cadascun governaria en unes àrees i uns territoris a Rashid li va pertocar el centre i sud i a Tadj al-Din el nord-est i oest (Mesopotàmia i Anatòlia). Fin després de la mort d'Oljeitu, Tadj al-Din no va aconseguir fer eliminar a Rashid al-Din i va aconseguir morir de mort natural.

Oljeitu va fer construir un mausoleu per dur les restes d'Ali i Hussein ibn Ali, però que finalment va servir per a ell mateix. Va morir el 16 de desembre de 1316 i el va succeir el seu fill Abu Said Bahadur Khan.

Rare gold coin from Muhammad Ghori period to be auctioned in London

A rare 13th century (1205 AD) gold coin from the time of Sultan Mu'izz Al-Din Muhammad Ghori aka Muhammad of Ghor, the man responsible for laying the foundation of Muslim rule in India, will be auctioned on October 22 in London and is expected to fetch £200,000 to £300,000 (Rs 1.89 crore to Rs 2.84 crore).

The coin is approximately 46mm (more than an inch and a half) and weighs a hefty 45g of pure gold. The fact that it is the only known coin bearing the sole name of one of the most famous Ghorid Sultans - Mu'izz Al-Din Muhammad bin Sam (567-602h), also known as 'Muhammad of Ghor,' makes it precious and worthy of a hefty sum.

Mu'izz Al-Din Muhammad was born in Ghor, one of the provinces in present-day Afghanistan, and along with his elder brother, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad, they created a vast Ghorid empire stretching from northern India in the East to the margins of the Caspian Sea in the West.

His rule spread across Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Northern India, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.

The spread of Islam in India can be attributed to him. He usurped many temples and mosques and introduced Islamic precepts and legal principles. It can be safely said that he changed the course of Indian history.

Explaining the significance of the coin Stephen Lloyd of Morton & Eden, responsible to carry out the auction said, "This outstanding, large gold coin is of significant historical importance to the Islamic world and especially to India. This is because the man who issued it, Mu'izz Al-Din, is credited as having laid the foundations for subsequent centuries of Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent."

While there are similar gold coins minted at Ghazna for the years of 597h and 598h, also carefully struck to the weight of 10-mithqals/dinars, these bear the names of both Sultan brothers. This coin, however, is the only one of its type to bear the sole name of Mu'izz Al-Din.

Why this gold coin was produced is not known, although it carries the date 601h (1205), the year when the whole of Hindustan came under Mu'izz Al-Din's sway.

Steve Lloyd of Morton & Eden further added, "This is a truly special coin. It was struck to celebrate and acknowledge the power and greatness of Mu'izz Al-Din (Muhammad of Ghor) at the height of his achievements in India."

This is the first time that this great rarity has been seen at public auction, having been in a European private collection for decades.

Watch the video: Diriliş Ertuğrul 109. Bölüm - Sultan Gıyaseddin ile Annesinin Yüzleşmesi


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