Corbesier DE-438 - History

Corbesier DE-438 - History


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Corbesier

Antoine Joseph Corbesier, born 22 January 1837 in Belgium, served in the Belgian army before coming to America. For more than 40 years he was the beloved swordmaster of the Naval Academy Midshipmen. By special act of Congress, he was given the rank of first Lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps 4 March 1913. He died in the Naval Hospital at Annapolis 26 March 1916.

Corbesier (DE-106) had her name canceled 24 September 1943 and was transferred to France under lend lease 2 January 1944 under the name Senegalais. She was transferred to France permanently under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program 21 April 1952.

(DE-438: dp. 1,350, 1. 306', b. 36'8", dr. 9'5"; s. 24 k.;
epl. 186; a. 2 5", 3 21" tt., 8 dep., 1 dcp.(hh.), 2 act.; el.
John C. Butler)

Corbesier (DE-438) was launched 13 February 1944 by Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, N.J., sponsored by Mrs. G. V. Stewart; and commissioned 31 March 1944, Lieutenant Commander W. B. Porter in command.

Corbesier departed New York City 29 May 1944 for Pearl Harbor, arriving 26 June. Between 2 July and 9 August, she twice escorted convoys to Eniwetok and back to Pearl Harbor. She next sailed to escort a cable ship to Midway, screened it during its operations there from 29 August to 16 September and proceeded with the cable ship to Eniwetok and Saipan, arriving 2 October.

Corbesier served on patrol and escort off Saipan from 12 October to 11 November 1944, then sailed for Guam and Leyte escorting an Army Engineer dredge. She departed San Pedro Bay 19 November for Ulithi, where from her arrival 25 November she carried out antisubmarine and escort missions, calling at Guam, Saipan, Kossol Roads, and Manus. On 23 January 1945 with Conklin (DE 439) and Rahy (DE-698) she sank the Japanese submarine 1-48 off Yap. She sailed from Ulithi 18 March with the logistics group supporting the fast carrier striking force in the Okinawa Campaign, and screened, guarded planes and transferred passengers, mail, and freight until 15 June when she was detached at Saipan. Sailing from Saipan 28 June for Okinawa, she operated on antisubmarine screening duty in protection of the operations on the island from 4 July undergoing the hazards of kamikaze attacks, and typhoons. At the end of hostilities, she anchored in Buckner Bay until 24 September, when she sailed for Nagasaki, arriving 26 September for various duties in support of the occupation of Japan, including transportation of passengers, mail, and light freight between Nagasaki, Sasebo, and Okinawa. She cleared Sasebo 16 October for Saipan, Pearl Harbor, and San Diego, arriving 10 November 1945. Corbesier was placed out of commission in reserve 2 July 1946, berthed at San Diego.

Corbesier received two battle stars for World War II service.


USS Corbesier (DE-438)

USS Corbesier (DE-438) was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. The primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Corbesier (DE-438) was named in honor of Antoine Joseph Corbesier, born 22 January 1837 in Belgium. He served in the Belgian army before coming to America. For more than 40 years he was the beloved swordmaster of the U.S. Naval Academy Midshipmen. By special Act of Congress, he was given the rank of first lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps 4 March 1913. He died in the Naval Hospital at Annapolis, Maryland, 26 March 1915.

Corbesier (DE-438) was launched 13 February 1944 by Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, New Jersey, sponsored by Mrs. G. V. Stewart and commissioned 31 March 1944, Lieutenant Commander W. B. Porter in command.


There are 9 census records available for the last name Corbesier. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Corbesier census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 15 immigration records available for the last name Corbesier. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 32 military records available for the last name Corbesier. For the veterans among your Corbesier ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 9 census records available for the last name Corbesier. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Corbesier census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 15 immigration records available for the last name Corbesier. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 32 military records available for the last name Corbesier. For the veterans among your Corbesier ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


Sperry History

Sperry history shown below is a repository for the Sperry history as it has been given from documents and stories from crewmen that were on the Sperry during these events.
Date of operation May 1, 1942 to Sept 30, 1982
Built by Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, CA
Built: February 1, 1941
Launched: December 17, 1941
Length: 530′ 7″
Beam: 73′ 4″
Draft: 22′ 5″
Displacement: 9,250 tons
Rated Speed: 15.4 knots
Compliment: 1,307
Named for Elmer Sperry – one of America’s best – (and tragically least known) inventors.
Elmer Ambrose Sperry was born on 12 October 1860 at Cortland, N.Y. After spending three years at the state normal school there, be became interested in dynamo electricity during a year of study at Cornell University in 1878 and 1879.
He moved to Chicago, Ill. early in 1880 and soon thereafter, founded the Sperry Electric Co. He organized the Sperry Electric Mining Machine Co. and the Sperry Electric Railway Co. in 1888 and 1890, respectively.
In 1900, Sperry established an electrochemical laboratory at Washington, D.C. where he and his associate, C. P. Townshend, developed a process for making pure caustic soda from salt and discovered a process for recovering tin from scrap metal.
Sperry experimented with diesel engines and gyroscopic compasses and stabilizers for ships and aircraft.
In 1910, he started the Sperry Gyroscope Co. in Brooklyn, N.Y. and his first compass was tested that same year in Delaware (Battleship No.28). His compasses and stabilizers were adopted by the United States Navy and used in both world wars.
In 1918, he produced a high-intensity arc lamp which was used by both the Army and Navy.

After setting up eight companies and receiving over 400 patents, Sperry died in Brooklyn, N.Y., on 12 June 1930.

Throughout USS Sperry’s AS-12 40-year history, many awards have been bestowed on her.
The following is a list of those awards:
Asiatic Campaign Medal 1942-46
American Campaign Medal 1942-46
World War II Campaign Medal 1942-46
Battle Efficiency “E” 1948
Battle Efficiency “E” 1949
Battle Efficiency “E” 1950
National Defense Medal 1954
National Defense Medal 1974
Meritorious Unit Commendation 1978
Battle Efficiency “E” 1980


Ships similar to or like USS Corbesier (DE-438)

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. To escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Wikipedia

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. To escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Wikipedia

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 and from 1951 to 1958. Sold for scrapping in 1974. Wikipedia

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. To escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Wikipedia

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. To escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Wikipedia

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1945 to 1947 and from 1951 to 1958. She sold for scrapping in 1974. Wikipedia

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during World War II. To escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Wikipedia

In service with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946 and from 1951 to 1957. Then transferred to Portugal, where she served as NRP Diogo-Cão until 1968. Wikipedia

Rudderow-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946. Sold for scrapping in 1970. Wikipedia

Rudderow-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946. Sold for scrapping in 1967. Wikipedia

Rudderow-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946. Sold for scrapping in 1973. Wikipedia

Rudderow-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946. Sold for scrapping in 1969. Wikipedia

John C. Butler–class destroyer escort built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Lieutenant Commander Thomas Olin Oberrender Jr., the engineering officer of the light cruiser, who was killed when that ship was torpedoed and sunk during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in 1942. Wikipedia

Rudderow-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946. Scrapped in 1973. Wikipedia


Laststandonzombieisland

Here at LSOZI, we are going to take off every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1859-1946 time period and will profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places. – Christopher Eger

Warship Wednesday, July 19, 2017: The Belgian sword master and his legacy

Via Steven Mortenson, Corbesier Historian/Navsource

Here we see the Butler-class destroyer escort USS Corbesier (DE 438) in an undated photo, likely somewhere in the Pacific in late WWII. She was named after an extremely well-known (for his time) expert with a blade.

“Cutlasses, lads!” was a standard call to prepare to repel boarders going back to the Continental Navy with Colonial armorer Richard Gridley and John Bailey reportedly crafting a number of these curved short swords for Washington’s fleet.

As described by JO2 Meckel in 1957’s “The Cutlass Carved Its Niche in Our Navy’s Annals,” the fledgling U.S. Navy ordered small lots of cutlasses from sword makers Nathan Starr of Middletown, Connecticut Lewis Prahl of Philadelphia and Robert Dingie of New York.

Starr later made three different 2,000-cutlass lots in 1808 (for $2.50 each), 1816 ($3.00) and 1826 ($4.25)– talk about inflation! These were needed in large numbers as frigates such as the USS Constitution were authorized no less than 156 cutlasses.

These early swords were later augmented and then replaced by the Ames Cutlass in two variants (1842 and 1860) with the latter, remaining in service amazingly through WWII.

The 1860 Ames was 32-inches long with a 26-inch blade, and was in service from 1860 through 1949! This example marked U.S.N. D.R. 1864, is in the National Park Service collection.

Moving from the Barbary Wars and War of 1812 to the Civil War, the Navy’s love affair with the cutlass remained intact, even as armor plate, steam engines, Gatling repeaters, torpedoes (mines) and rifled naval guns moved combat into modern terms.

With the need to remain trained in these traditional edged weapons, you need a swordmaster.

Enter one very dapper Antoine Joseph Corbesier, a man skilled at the noble art of attack and parry with a sword.

As noted by DANFS, Corbesier was born 22 January 1837 in Belgium and, after service with the French, emigrated to America.

As described by Fencing Classics, “A brief advertisement in the New York Tribune, from October 19, 1863, places him in New York during the time of the Civil War, where he was a teacher at the New York Fencing Club before opening his own school.”

By 1865, the 28-year-old European fencer was Sword-Master of the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis and, had made such an impression on the very gruff Admiral David Dixon Porter, then Superintendent, that Porter endorsed Corbesier’s 76-page text on sword fighting published in 1868.

“Principles of Squad Instruction for the Broadsword” soon became the standard tome for the use of naval cutlasses in the U.S. Navy and the influence can be seen for decades, along with other works he produced on the bayonet.

USS GALENA, 1880-92. Caption: Left flank cut, during cutlass practice. Description: Catalog #: NH 53998

Left flank cut, from Corbesier’s book

“Left face cut.” Cutlass exercises for apprentices onboard USS MONONGAHELA at Newport, Rhode Island, circa June 1891. Halftone of a photo by Frank H. Child, Newport, Rhode Island. From the book: “U.S.T.S. Monongahela and the U.S. Naval Training System, illustrated,” 1892. Description: Catalog #: NH 45885

Left face cut, from Corbesier’s book

Cane and bayonet exercises at the Naval Academy circa 1887 Description Copied from United States Naval Academy, Annapolis Maryland by E.H. Hart, New York 1887 NH 1661

Meanwhile, new ships coming on line, even though they were modern steam vessels lit by electric light, were still given their (reduced) allotment of cutlasses which, in naval tradition, would remain aboard until the ship was removed from the Naval List, ensuring the swords would float around through the Spanish-American War, Great War, and even into WWII.

Cutlass exercise Caption: Aboard a U.S. Navy warship during the later 1800s. Postcard photo. Description: Catalog #: NH 80750

USS Enterprise (1877-1909) Ship’s Apprentices pose by the port side quarterdeck ladder, while Enterprise was at the New York Navy Yard, circa spring 1890. Photographed by E.H. Hart, New York City. Note the figure-eight Apprentice mark visible on the uniforms of several of these men, and cutlass fan on the cabin bulkhead at left. Stern of receiving ship Vermont is partially visible in the left background. U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph. Catalog #: NH 54215

USS CHICAGO (1889-1935) Caption: View on the gun deck, about 1890. Note cutlass and rifle racks, with 6″/30 broadside guns beyond. Description: Catalog #: NH 55124

Cutlass practice between Marines and sailors in an image right out of Corbesier’s book-1890s-aboard the early protected cruiser USS Newark (C-1). LOC photo via Shorpy colorized by Postales Navales

Cutlass rack: Lot 3000-A-20: U.S. Navy protected cruiser, USS Atlanta, quarterdeck, 1890-1912. Note, Atlanta was one of the first steel warships of the New Navy. Detroit Publishing Company. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

LC-J698-61286_Lot 8688: USS Olympia (Cruiser #6), arms locker, circa 1899. Note the U.S. flag on the bulkhead. Photograph by Francis B. Johnston.

Steam Sloop USS Richmond, Sailors polishing brass, circa 1899, note the cutlass rack to the right and the bluejacket to the left with a blade. Also, note the African-American crewmember. LOC LC-D4-20927 (cropped)

USS Kearsarge (BB-5) and USS Kentucky (BB-6), Cutlass Rack plans. 7.23.1900 NARA 167817454

By a special act of Congress, after more than 40 years of instruction at the Academy, Corbesier was given the rank of first lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps 4 March 1913.

Lieutenant Antoine J. Corbesier, USMC, taken sometime between 1913-15. Catalog #: NH 51707

He died in the Naval Hospital at Annapolis on 26 March 1915, where he lived at the time.

His obituary ran in several nautical journals of the day, the below from Seven Seas Magazine.

Even with the great swordsman gone, the Navy kept the cutlass on tap, and they continued to see service in far-flung ports when needed, even apparently being broken out once or twice in China as late as the 1930s.

On the eve of the Great War, the Navy attempted to replace the Civil War-era Ames Cutlass with the new M1917 Naval Cutlass, based on the Dutch Klewang boarding sword, though its adoption seems more miss than hit.

JJ55-3/1510, 15 October 1942
ACTION: ALL SHIPS AND STATIONS

1.Officers of the Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps, shall no longer be required to possess swords as part of their uniform equipment.

2.The various uniform regulations will be modified accordingly.

3.It is expected that a form of dirk will, in due course, be adopted as uniform equipment in lieu of the sword.

4.Due to the urgent need for metals, it is suggested that officers, who may so desire, turn in their swords for scrap.-SecNav. Frank Knox.

This order, as noted by NHHC Curator Mark Wertheimer in 2003, did not affect cutlasses still in unit and vessel armories, and they “remained an ordnance allowance item until 1949” indeed, being done away with in by NavOrd Inst. 4500-1 in November 1949. Reportedly, some Marines even carried them ashore in the Pacific for use as machetes during the jungle fighting of WWII.

However, the swordsman may have been gone, and his weapons headed for the literal scrap heap, but he was not forgotten.

On 11 November 1943 at Dravo shipyard in Wilmington, Delaware, a Cannon-class destroyer escort was named USS Corbesier (DE-106) in his honor. She went on to be commissioned as the Free French Naval ship Sénégalais (T-22) on 2 January 1944, which is fitting to a degree based on Corbesier’s French military service in the days of Napoleon III.

Sénégalais went on to seriously damage German submarine U-371 just five months after she was taken over by the French, taking a German homing torpedo in the exchange.

Sénégalais (French Escort Ship, formerly USS Corbesier, DE-106) French sailor paints a submarine kill symbol on the ship’s smokestack, following the sinking of German submarine U-371 off the Algerian coast on 4 May 1944. During the action, Sénégalais delivered the final attack on U-371 but was herself torpedoed and damaged. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives. Catalog #: 80-G-K-1606

The French ship went on to serve that Navy until 1965, being scrapped in Germany.

Meanwhile, a second USS Corbesier, (DE-438), a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort, was launched in 1944 by Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, N.J. Commissioned 31 March 1944, she sailed for the Pacific and performed ASW missions and general escort duties.

Via Steven Mortenson, Corbesier Historian/Navsource

On 23 January 1945, with sisters Conklin (DE-439) and Raby (DE-698), Corbesier sank the Japanese submarine I-48 off Yap Island.

23 January 1945:
15 miles NE of Yap Island. At 0310, USS CORBESIER (DE-438) makes a radar contact at about 9,800 yds. The target is heading 210 degrees at 18 kts. After CORBESIER closes to investigate, I-48 dives. At 0336, CORBESIER obtains a sound contact and fires a salvo of Mk.10 “Hedgehog” projector charges but misses. CONKLIN and RABY (DE-698) join the chase. CORBESIER makes five more Hedgehog attacks, all with negative results, finally, losing the contact.

At 0902, CORBESIER regains contact and executes another “Hedgehog” attack, again with negative results. At 0912, CORBESIER reestablishes sound contact with the sub, but loses it before an attack can be made. CONKLIN makes a new “Hedgehog” attack at 0934, from a distance of 550 yds. Seventeen seconds later, four or five explosions are heard from an estimated depth of 175 ft. At 0936, a violent explosion occurs, temporarily disabling CONKLIN’s engines and steering gear. Huge air bubbles come up alongside soon thereafter oil and debris surface. Large quantities of human remains are likewise sighted.

17 miles N of Yap. A motor whaleboat from CONKLIN picks up pieces of planking, splintered wood, cork, interior woodwork with varnished surfaces, a sleeve of a knitted blue sweater containing flesh, chopsticks and a seaman’s manual. I-48 is sunk with her 118-strong crew and four kaiten pilots at 09-55N, 138-17.30E

It wasn’t gentlemanly swordplay, but it was no less deadly.

Corbesier went on to serve off Okinawa, parrying attacks from Japanese kamikaze off Okinawa. She completed the war with two battle stars, and berthed at San Diego, was decommissioned in 1946. She was scrapped in 1972.

The Navy has not named another vessel after Adm. Porter’s swordmaster.

They did bring back the officer’s dress sword in 1952, in 2011 CPOs were granted the authority to carry a mil-spec cutlass on certain occasions, and today the (ceremonial) use of the sword is instilled in the Marine’s Corporal’s Course, so there is that.

U.S. Marine Corps Staff Sgt. Joseph Bednarik, with Company E, 2nd Recruit Training Battalion, Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, instructs Marines on proper sword manual during Corporals Course on Camp Pendleton, Calif., Feb 22, 2016. Sword manual is an honored tradition in which Marines command troop formations during formal ceremonies. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Cpl. Brian Bekkala, MCIWEST-MCB CamPen Combat Camera/Released)

And yes, there are still a few old-school Ames-style cutlasses around, which would warm Corbesier’s heart.

Petty Officer 3rd Class Tenika Fugate, assigned to USS Constitution, raises a cutlass during a color guard detail in Old Town during Albuquerque Navy Week. Navy Weeks are designed to show Americans the investment they have made in their Navy and increase awareness in cities that do not have a significant Navy presence. (Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Eric Brown)

Even when the uniforms change, the cutlass endures…

171114-N-IK959-765 GREAT LAKES, Ill. (Nov. 14, 2017) Recruits march down the street at Recruit Training Command (RTC) while wearing the Navy Working Uniform (NWU) Type III uniforms. The new camouflage uniforms started being issued to incoming recruits at RTC in October. Approximately 30,000-40,000 recruits graduate RTC annually. (U.S. Navy photo by Scott A. Thornbloom/Released)

His “Principles of Squad Instruction for the Broadsword” is in the public domain, has been digitized, and is widely available, ensuring that it will endure.

And of course, if you are passing through the Naval Academy, stop by the Cemetery and Columbarium, and visit Lot 394 to pay your respects.

Yet, “If the Army and the Navy Ever look on Heaven’s scenes They will find the streets are guarded By United States Marines,” holds true, the swordsman may still be holding class.

(DE 438)
Displacement: 1,350/1,745 tons
Length: 306 ft. (93 m) overall
Beam: 36 ft. 10 in (11.23 m)
Draught: 13 ft. 4 in (4.06 m) maximum
Propulsion: 2 boilers, 2 geared turbine engines, 12,000 shp, 2 screws
Speed: 24 knots (44 km/h)
Range: 6,000 nmi at 12 knots (22 km/h)
Complement: 14 officers, 201 enlisted
Armament:
2 × 5 in (130 mm)
4 × 40 mm AA (2 × 2)
10 × 20 mm guns AA
3 × 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes
1 × Hedgehog
8 × K-gun depth charge projectors
2 × depth charge tracks
(though likely no cutlasses)

If you liked this column, please consider joining the International Naval Research Organization (INRO), Publishers of Warship International

They are possibly one of the best sources of naval study, images, and fellowship you can find. http://www.warship.org/membership.htm

The International Naval Research Organization is a non-profit corporation dedicated to the encouragement of the study of naval vessels and their histories, principally in the era of iron and steel warships (about 1860 to date). Its purpose is to provide information and a means of contact for those interested in warships.

With more than 50 years of scholarship, Warship International, the written tome of the INRO has published hundreds of articles, most of which are unique in their sweep and subject.


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Warship Wednesday, June 21, 2017: The Tsar’s everlasting musketeer

Here at LSOZI, we are going to take off every Wednesday for a look at the old steam/diesel navies of the 1859-1946 time period and will profile a different ship each week. These ships have a life, a tale all their own, which sometimes takes them to the strangest places. – Christopher Eger

Warship Wednesday, June 21, 2017: The Tsar’s everlasting musketeer

Here we see the Uragan/Bronenosets-class monitor Strelets as she appeared in the heyday of her career in the late 19th Century in the Baltic Fleet of the Tsar’s Imperial Russian Navy. A byproduct of a strange time in Russian-U.S. history, she somehow endures today.

The Misinterpreted Russian Navy Mission in the US Civil War that may have accidentally helped the North win the conflict.

In 1863, it looked as if the mighty British Empire may intervene in the Civil War on the side of the Confederacy. War fever had come to London early in the conflict after the “Trent Affair” while British firms such as Enfield and Whitworth sold tremendous amounts of arms of all kinds to Confederate agents which were in turn often smuggled through the U.S. naval quarantine via British blockade-runners. Confederate raiders including the notorious CSS Alabama and CSS Shenandoah were constructed in English harbors. British war tourist Colonel (later General Sir) Arthur Fremantle in 1863 had just returned from three months in both the U.S. and Confederate commands fighting the war and loudly pronounced that the Confederates would certainly be victorious.

Relations between the United States and Tsarist Russia were warmer than with many other European nations at the time. Cassius Marcellus Clay, a well-known abolitionist, was ambassador to the court of Tsar Alexander II during the conflict. It was Clay’s report on the Tsar’s Emancipation of 23 million serfs in 1861 that helped pave the way for Lincolns own Emancipation Proclamation of the four million slaves the next year. American engineers and railway organizers were helpful in starting the early Russian railway system. Clay openly encouraged a military alliance and thought of Russia as a hedge between possible British intervention on the Confederate side.

On 24 September 1863, two separate Russian naval squadrons arrived in U.S. waters unannounced on both the East and West Coasts.

The Russian Atlantic fleet had sailed from the Baltic and arrived at New York under command of RADM Lesovskii with three large frigates and a trio of smaller vessels. The fleet included the new and fearsome 5,100-ton U.S.-built screw frigate Alexander Nevsky with her 51 60-pounder naval guns.

Crew of the Russian Frigate Osliaba – Alexandria, VA, 1863

The Russian Pacific fleet that arrived on the West Coast at San Francisco was under command of RADM Popov and consisted of four small gunboats with a pair of armed merchant cruisers.

The ships were saluted and allowed entry as being on a friendly port call. The American media and political machine immediately interpreted the reason for these naval visits as clear Russian support for Lincoln.

The real reason, however, seems to be something quite different.

Poland, largely occupied by Russia, was in open revolt in the summer of 1863. The crisis that followed included the possibility that Britain and or France would intervene on the side of the insurgent Poles. The Tsar, fearing his isolated Pacific and Atlantic naval squadrons would be seized or destroyed by superior British or French units in the event of war, sent them into neutral U.S. ports to seek refuge. This fact was held from the Americans and the fleets’ Russian officers simply stated that they were in American ports for “not unfriendly purposes.”

The respective admirals of the Russian squadrons had sealed orders to place themselves at the disposal of the U.S. government in the event of a joint British or French intervention on both Russia and the United States. In the event of Russia entering war with the Anglo-French forces alone then the Russian ships were to sortie against the commercial fleets of those vessels as best as they could and then seek internment.

Several historians claim that the British government saw this mysterious visit by the Russians in U.S. waters as an open confirmation of a secret military pact between the two future superpowers. This interpretation further helped deter foreign recognition of the Confederate cause and resulted in the extinguishing of the South’s flame of hope. It can also be claimed that it stalled British intervention in the Tsar’s problems in Poland with the thought that it could result in a U.S. invasion of Canada.

When the Polish crisis abated in April 1864, the Russian fleets were recalled quietly to their respective home waters. The dozen Tsarist warships had conducted port calls and training cruises in U.S. and neighboring waters for almost seven months during the war while managing to avoid the conflict altogether. In the late fall of 1863, with rumors of Confederate raiders lurking on the West Coast, Popov reassured to the governor of California that he and his fleet would indeed protect the coast of their de facto ally if the raiders did appear.

The U.S. Navy, on the cutting edge of ironclad steam warship design, passed along plans and expertise to their Russian colleagues who had no such vessels. By 1865, the Tsar had a fleet of 10 ultra-modern 200-foot long ironclad battleships based on the monitor USS Passaic. These ships, known to the Russians as the Uragan/Bronenosetz class were a match for any European navy of the time– at least in their home waters.

In 1867, Russian Ambassador Baron Stoeckel advised US Secretary Seward that the Russian government would entertain bids for the failing colony of Alaska, which was rapidly accepted. Cassius Clay, still in Russia, helped to conduct the negations from inside the Winter Palace. The Russians even rapidly transferred control of the territory, which was seen by many to be worthless nearly a year before Congress ratified the transfer and in effect, couldn’t give it back.

This odd incident of the Russian fleets’ visit may have prevented what would have certainly been one of the planet’s first and possibly oddest of world wars. The real reasons for the Russian interlude were only uncovered and publicized nearly 50 years later in 1915 by military historian Frank Golder.

But let’s get back to the monitors

These modified Passaic-type ships were low in the water, single turret “cheesebox on a raft” style armored ships that could be fearsome in coastal waters. Their wrought-iron armor, stacked in 1-inch plates, varied between a single plate on deck to 10 inches on the turret, which was filled with a pair of 9-inch smoothbore guns with 100 shells each. The steam-powered turret took 35 seconds to make a full rotation.

A pair of boilers vented through a single stack pushed a 460ihp engine to about 8-knots when wide open, though in actuality they rarely broke 6.

As they had a very low freeboard indeed (just 18 inches above the waterline when fully loaded) the ships were intended for the defense of the Gulf of Finland and St. Petersburg, with memories of the Anglo-French fleet ruling the Baltic during the Crimean War still a recent memory.

Ten vessels were built, all with colorful names: Uragan “Hurricane,” Tifon “Typhon,” Strelets “Sagittarius,” Edinorog “Unicorn,” Bronenosets “Armadillo,” Latnik “Cuirassier,” Koldun “Sorcerer,” Perun (the Slavic god of lightning and thunder), Veshchun “Snake Charmer,” and Lava.

The hero of our story, Strelets, while named for a zodiac symbol for Sagittarius, was the Tsarist terminology for the early corps of musketeers established in the 16th century and retained until Peter the Great decided they were getting too big for their collective britches after a series of palace coups by the Moscow-based units.

“Streltsy” . Sergei Ivanov 1909

Laid down at the Galernyi Island Shipyard, Saint Petersburg on 1 December 1863, just weeks after her plans had been obtained in the U.S., she was commissioned 15 June 1865, built at a cost of 1.1 million rubles alongside sister Edinorog. The pair were the last of the 10 completed.

Sistership Edinorog. Note how low the freeboard was.

Their eight remaining sisters were completed in a series of four other yards, with all joining the fleet by the summer of 1865.

Russian monitor Veshchun as completed. She was built from sections at the Cockerill yard in Seraing, Belgium. Courtesy J. Meister Collection, 1976. Catalog #: NH 84753

Russian monitor Lava as completed. She was built at the Nevsky factory. Courtesy J. Meister Collection, 1976. Catalog #: NH 84754

Monitors at Kronstadt. Watercolor by A. A. Tronya

By 1868, the 9-inch smoothbores were replaced by 15-inch Dahlgren-style guns built to U.S. plans at the Aleksandrovsk gun factory, for which just 50 shells could be carried in her magazine.

However, these guns were soon obsolete and were in turn replaced by Krupp-designed, Obukhov-made M1867 229/14 breechloaders. One of these guns was the subject of an explosion near the breech in 1876 that claimed the lives of five.

Diagram showing the location of sailors in the tower of the monitor Sagittarius at the time of the breakthrough of the powder gases on August 10, 1876

This led to another armament replacement in 1878 with 229/19 M1877 rifles augmented by a pair of 45-mm rapid-fire guns on an increasingly cluttered deck to which 5-barreled 37/17 Hotchkiss revolving cannon were also later added.

Rapidly obsolete in the twilight of the 19th Century, on 1 February 1892 Strelets and the rest of her class were deemed “coastal defense ships” and by 1900 all 10 sisters were withdrawn from service and disarmed.

While many were soon scrapped, Strelets was reclassified as a floating workshop at Kronstadt on 22 February 1901 and was retained by the fleet until Christmas Eve 1955.

As such, she witnessed the Baltic Fleet sail away to destruction in the Russo-Japanese War in (1904-05), supported operations against the Germans (1914-1917) in the Great War, witnessed the Red Fleet rise in the Revolution, withstood the British in the Russian Civil War, survived the storming of Kronstadt by the Reds in 1921, lent her shops to the Red Banner Fleet against the Finns (1939-40) then the Germans again (1941-45)– in all spending over 90 years on the rolls in one form or another.

After leaving naval service she was retained in a variety of roles in and around Leningrad/St. Petersburg and in 2015 was found in floating condition, her internals still showing off those classic Civil War lines.

She has since been recovered by a group terming itself “The Foundation for Historic Boats” who, together with the Russian Central Military History Museum, are attempting to restore her to a more monitor-like condition. She could very well be the oldest monitor remaining afloat.

At rest near the cruiser Aurora

For more information in that, click here.


Displacement: 1,500–1,600 long tons (1,524–1,626 t)
Length: 201 ft. (61.3 m)
Beam: 46 ft. (14.0 m)
Draft: 10.16–10.84 ft. (3.1–3.3 m)
Installed power:
460hp 2-cylinder direct-acting steam engine, 1 shaft, 1 4-lop. screw
2 rectangular Morton boilers, 1 stack
Speed: 6 knots (11 km/h 6.9 mph)
Range: 1,440 nmi (2,670 km 1,660 mi) at 6 knots (11 km/h 6.9 mph) with 100 tons coal
Complement: 1865: 96 (8) 1877: 110 (10) 1900, assigned support personnel
Armament:
1865: 2 × 9 in (229 mm) smoothbore guns
1868: 2 × 15 in (381 mm) smoothbore Rodman guns
1873: 2 × 9 in (229 mm) rifled guns, 2x45mm guns
1890: 2 × 9 in (229 mm) rifled guns, 2x 47/40, 2x 5-barreled 37/17 Hotchkiss revolving cannon
1900: Disarmed
Armor: wrought Izhora iron
Hull: 5 in (127 mm)
Gun turret: 11 in (279 mm)
Funnel base: 6 in (152 mm)
Conning tower: 8 in (203 mm)

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เรือรบฝรั่งเศส Sénégalais

Yser เดิมชื่อ Sénégalais เป็น เรือรบ ใน กองกำลังนาวิกโยธินเสรีฝรั่งเศส ในช่วง สงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง และ กองทัพเรือฝรั่งเศส หลังสงคราม เรือถูกสร้างขึ้นมาเป็น ยูเอส Corbesier (DE-106) ชาวอเมริกัน แคนนอน -class พิฆาตคุ้มกัน ชื่อของ แอนทอนโจเซฟ Corbesier มานานกว่า 40 ปีเขาเป็นที่รักของ Swordmaster ของโรงเรียนนายเรือสหรัฐ Midshipmen ชื่อ Corbesier (DE-106) ถูกยกเลิกเมื่อวันที่ 24 กันยายน พ.ศ. 2486 ดังนั้นจึงสามารถใช้กับ USS Corbesier (DE-438) ได้ [2]

  • มาตรฐานยาว 1,240 ตัน (1,260 ตัน)
  • 1,620 ตันยาว (1,646 ตัน) เต็ม
  • 306 ฟุต (93 ม.) o / a
  • 300 ฟุต (91 ม.) w / l
  • ปืนลำกล้อง 3 × single Mk.22 3 "/ 50
  • 1 × twin 40 mm Mk.1 AA gun
  • ปืน Mk.4 AA ขนาด 8 × 20 มม
  • ท่อตอร์ปิโด 3 × 21 นิ้ว (533 มม.)
  • 1 × Hedgehog Mk.10 ปูนต่อต้านเรือดำน้ำ
  • โปรเจ็กเตอร์ ชาร์จความลึก 8 × Mk.6
  • แทร็กการชาร์จความลึก 2 × Mk.9

ในช่วง สงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง , Corbesier ถูกย้ายไปที่ กองทัพเรือฝรั่งเศสเสรี ภายใต้การ ให้ยืมเช่า ที่ 2 มกราคม 1944 และเปลี่ยนชื่อ Senegalais เป็นเจ้าของเรือที่ถูกย้ายไปยังประเทศฝรั่งเศสเมื่อวันที่ 21 เมษายน 1952 ภายใต้การ ร่วมกันกลาโหมโครงการให้ความช่วยเหลือ เธอถูกเปลี่ยนชื่อเป็น Yser ในเวลาเดียวกัน

สงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง

ในคืนวันที่ 2/3 พฤษภาคม พ.ศ. 2487 U-371 ได้พบกับการชาร์จแบตเตอรี่ของเธอบนพื้นผิวนอก เมือง Djidjelli บน ชายฝั่ง แอลจีเรีย พื้นที่เต็มไปด้วยผู้คุ้มกันหกคนจากขบวน GUS-38 และฝูงบินเครื่องบินสามลำ เมื่อเวลา 01.18 น. ของวันที่ 3 พฤษภาคมเรืออูสามารถสร้างความเสียหายให้ กับ Menges โดยมี Gnat อยู่ท้ายเรือ เรือลำอื่น ๆ ตามล่าเรืออูจนถึงเช้าตรู่ของวันที่ 4 พฤษภาคมเมื่อ Fenksi ต้องขึ้นผิวน้ำและช่วยชีวิตลูกเรือของเขา แต่ในเวลา 04.04 น. เขายังคงต่อสู้กลับและยังทำให้ FFL Sénégalais (T 22) เสียหาย ด้วย Gnat ก่อนที่จะวิ่งหนี เรืออู [1]

สงครามอินโดจีนครั้งแรก

Senegalais ถูกส่งไปทางทิศตะวันออกห่างไกลในเดือนตุลาคมปี 1945 และต่อมาเข้าร่วมใน สงครามอินโดจีนครั้งแรก [3]

  1. ^ "FFL Senegalais (T 22)" uboat.net . สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 เมษายน 2558 .
  2. ^
  3. "Corbesier (DE-106) Senegalais (F-02)" . Navsource.org สืบค้นเมื่อ 24 เมษายน 2558 .
  4. ^
  5. "SÉNÉGALAIS - เรือพิฆาต d'escorte - Classe" CANNON " " . Alamer.fr . สืบค้นเมื่อ 25 เมษายน 2558 .
  • บทความนี้จะรวมข้อความจาก สาธารณพจนานุกรมของนาวิกโยธินอเมริกันปเรือรายการที่สามารถพบได้ ที่นี่ และ ที่นี่

บทความเกี่ยวกับเรือโดยเฉพาะทหารหรือเรือของฝรั่งเศสนี้เป็น ต้นขั้ว คุณสามารถช่วยวิกิพีเดียโดย ขยาย


SENSUIKAN!

19 June 1943:
Laid down at Sasebo Navy Yard as the C2 class Submarine No. 378 (the last unit of that class).

12 December 1943:
Launched and numbered I-48.

10 June 1944:
LtCdr (Cdr, posthumously) Toyama Zenshin (59)(former CO of I-38) is appointed the Chief Equipping Officer (CEO).

5 September 1944:
Sasebo. Completed and attached to Yokosuka Naval District. Assigned to Rear Admiral Ishizaki Noboru's (42) SubRon 11, Sixth Fleet. LtCdr Toyama Zenshin is the Commanding Officer.

I-48 is configured to carry four kaiten human torpedoes on her afterdeck (only two are fitted with underwater access tubes). She carries a Type 13 air-search radar and an E27 Type 3 radar detector.

7 December 1944:
I-48 is reassigned to SubDiv 15 in Vice Admiral Miwa Shigeyoshi's (39) Sixth Fleet.

8 December 1944:
I-48 is assigned to "Kongo" (Steel) kaiten unit.

26 December 1944:
Inland Sea. I-48 finishes working-up and heads for the Otsujima base to embark her human torpedoes.

9 January 1945: The Second Kaiten Mission:
I-48 departs Otsujima with four kaitens embarked as the last unit of the "Kongo" group for a planned 21 January dawn attack on the USN Third Fleet anchorage at Ulithi, Carolines. No messages are received from I-48 after her departure.

21 January 1945:
18 miles W of Ulithi. At 1930, Lt (later Cdr) Frank A. Yourek, piloting a Martin PBM-3D "Mariner" of VPB-20 based at Tinian, makes a radar contact with a surfaced submarine heading for Ulithi at 18 knots. He attempts to establish the nationality of the sub, which immediately crash-dives. Lt Yourek attacks the submarine with two depth charges and then releases a Mk.24 "Fido" acoustic torpedo. I-48 (probably with some kaitens already manned) is forced to abort the attack.

Lt Yourek reports his sighting to Ulithi. A three-strong hunter-killer group is formed of CortDiv 65 destroyer escorts with LtCdr Edmund L. McGibbon, CO of USS CONKLIN (DE-439), in tactical command. McGibbon assumes that the damaged submarine would head directly for the Japanese-held Yap Island at an estimated submerged speed of 3 knots during the first night and day.

22 January 1945:
After no contacts are made, McGibbon decides to expand the search all the way to Yap.

23 January 1945:
15 miles NE of Yap Island. At 0310, USS CORBESIER (DE-438) makes a radar contact at about 9,800 yds. The target is heading 210 degrees at 18 kts. After CORBESIER closes to investigate, I-48 dives. At 0336, CORBESIER obtains a sound contact and fires a salvo of Mk.10 "Hedgehog" projector charges but misses. CONKLIN and RABY (DE-698) join the chase. CORBESIER makes five more "Hedgehog" attacks, all with negative results, finally losing the contact.

At 0902, CORBESIER regains contact and executes another "Hedgehog" attack, again with negative results. At 0912, CORBESIER reestablishes sound contact with the sub, but loses it before an attack can be made. CONKLIN makes a new "Hedgehog" attack at 0934, from a distance of 550 yds. Seventeen seconds later, four or five explosions are heard from an estimated depth of 175 ft. At 0936, a violent explosion occurs, temporarily disabling CONKLIN's engines and steering gear. Huge air bubbles come up alongside soon thereafter oil and debris surface. Large quantities of human remains are likewise sighted.

17 miles N of Yap. A motor whaleboat from CONKLIN picks up pieces of planking, splintered wood, cork, interior woodwork with varnished surfaces, a sleeve of a knitted blue sweater containing flesh, chopsticks and a seaman's manual. I-48 is sunk with her 118-strong crew and four kaiten pilots at 09-55N, 138-17.30E. [1][2]

31 January 1945:
HQ, Sixth Fleet attempts to contact I-48 and orders her to return to Kure.

10 May 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.

Authors' Notes:
[1] This was CONKLIN's second submarine kill. The first (I-37, another kaiten carrier) was shared with USS MCCOY REYNOLDS (DE-440).

[2] Sources disagree on the exact location of I-48's loss. An alternative location is 09-45N, 138-20E.

[3] The Kongo group's Action Report credits I-48's kaiten pilots with the sinking of four ships, including a cruiser and an oiler. None of the claims is substantiated, since no launches were made.

Special thanks go to Dr. Higuchi Tatsuhiro of Japan and to fellow IJN submarine enthusiast Steve Eckhardt of Australia.


Watch the video: AD723 Architecture History 2 - Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris Le Corbusier


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