Review: Volume 33

Review: Volume 33

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  • Second World War
  • Medieval World
  • Military History
  • Tudor England
  • Chinese History
  • The Railways

The Natural and Unnatural History of Ventricular Septal Defects Presenting in Infancy: An Echocardiography-Based Review

Background: Ventricular septal defect (VSD), the most common congenital heart defect, accounts for 40% of heart malformations. Despite this prevalence, there remains no consensus on the utility of echocardiography to guide modern-era treatment. In this study, we evaluated patients with isolated VSDs to test the hypothesis that echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular (LV) volume overload and type of VSD are associated with surgical intervention and to identify useful echocardiographic indicators for management of VSDs in infants and children.

Methods: We reviewed 350 patients with VSDs diagnosed during the first year of life. Echocardiographic measurements were made at the time of diagnosis and at the endpoint. The VSD area was calculated using inner edge to inner edge dimensions obtained from two planes and indexed to body surface area. Aortic annulus dimension, left atrium to aortic root ratio, LV end-diastolic diameter, left atrial volume, VSD velocity-time integral, ejection fraction, and pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio (Qp:Qs) were measured using conventional methods.

Results: One hundred seventy-seven muscular (50.5%) and 162 perimembranous (46%) VSDs accounted for the vast majority of defects. Only seven (4%) muscular defects required surgical closure, while 76 (47%) perimembranous defects required surgery. Indexed VSD area, VSD to aortic valve ratio, indexed left atrium volume, LV end-diastolic diameter, VSD velocity-time integral, and Qp:Qs at diagnosis were significantly different between the surgical and nonsurgical groups. Ventricular septal defect area > 50 mm 2 /m 2 at initial diagnosis was independently associated with risk for surgery (P = .0055).

Conclusions: Indexed VSD area is an echocardiographic variable that can be easily measured at diagnosis and can provide insight into the likelihood of requiring surgical intervention regardless of the type and location of the defect.

Keywords: Echocardiography Surgical closure Ventricular septal defect.

The Evolution of Human Skin and Skin Color

▪ Abstract Humans skin is the most visible aspect of the human phenotype. It is distinguished mainly by its naked appearance, greatly enhanced abilities to dissipate body heat through sweating, and the great range of genetically determined skin colors present within a single species. Many aspects of the evolution of human skin and skin color can be reconstructed using comparative anatomy, physiology, and genomics. Enhancement of thermal sweating was a key innovation in human evolution that allowed maintenance of homeostasis (including constant brain temperature) during sustained physical activity in hot environments. Dark skin evolved pari passu with the loss of body hair and was the original state for the genus Homo. Melanin pigmentation is adaptive and has been maintained by natural selection. Because of its evolutionary lability, skin color phenotype is useless as a unique marker of genetic identity. In recent prehistory, humans became adept at protecting themselves from the environment through clothing and shelter, thus reducing the scope for the action of natural selection on human skin.

Quad 33 Preamp and 303 Amp Reviewed

Aaah, if only every manufacturer had this dilemma – too many classics in its c.v.! With Quad, do you think first of the original ESL or ESL63? The Quad 22/II? Or do you picture their biggest-selling pre-amp ever and their second-best-selling power amp, the 33/303 combination? For those of a certain age, who arrived on the hi-fi scene after 1967 but before the dawn of CD, that was the heart of a Quad system, and for many of them, it was the introduction to the UK’s most venerable brand.

By the mid-1960s, the transistor had made such broad inroads into audio that even valve die-hards like Quad, McIntosh, Leak and Radford were having to produce both. Difficult though it may seem for younger readers to envision this, there was a time when major brands’ catalogues included both technologies.

Gordon Hill recalled, in , ‘Quad was one of the last audio manufacturers to introduce a transistor amplifier…Many famous names were early adopters and they were a commercial, if not an audiophile success. The original Leak Stereo 30 is one such example.

Competition and Comparison
You can compare the Quad 33 preamp and 303 amp against other products by reading our reviews for the Unison Research Mystery One preamp and the Beard BB 30-60 integrated amp. You can find more information available in our Preamplifier review section and on our Quad brand page.

‘In many ways Quad had built a rod for its own back. Prevailing transistor amplifiers had neither the power response nor the stability to drive the ESL-57 satisfactorily and the world at large would just have to wait if the remarkable qualities of this speaker were not to be thrown away by an unsuitable design.’

Unlike some, Quad did wait for a dependable device. It arrived in the form of the silicon epitaxial transistor, which Hill states, ‘had virtually none of the disadvantages of its germanium cousin. There was a learning curve, but manufacturers did eventually produce high-gain, low-noise input devices and stable, wide bandwidth output transistors. The EF86 and KT66 were the devices of yesterday, the BC109 and the 2N3055 were the devices of tomorrow. Nearly 40 years on you can still find them, or some of their variants, in many modern amplifiers.’

Quad launched the 33 pre-amplifier and 303 stereo power amplifier in 1967 after a typically long gestation period. Many have noted that the Quad 33 is in many ways a solid-state Quad 22. Quad employee Roger Hill notes that, ‘If you look at the Quad 22 and the Quad 33, it fits in the same furniture by just squaring off the corners.’ The styling was brought up to date, allowing the unit to be free-standing or cabinet-mounted.

Quad provided mains power for the 33 to allow it to be used as a stand-alone unit and it had two switched sockets on the rear panel to supply mains to a tuner and a power amplifier. To maximise the available space, all the signal connections were DIN, at a time before the average audiophile grew to loathe them.

Its phono input is a conventional, two transistor amplifier with feedback equalisation, with a plug-in board to provide different cartridge sensitivities and impedances. (Moving coil was not a major concern in 1967.) Gordon Hill: ‘The relatively low headroom of this stage requires that high output devices be attenuated, thus failing to maximise the noise performance of the preamplifier. This being 1967, all options for adjusting recording characteristics have been consigned to history and the response is within 0.5dB of the RIAA curve from 30Hz-20kHz. A built-in rumble filter cuts in steeply at 30Hz.’

A second plug-in board in the tape loop allowed the user to vary the output and input sensitivities, while the tape output could be adjusted to conform to the DIN standard. Gordon Hill remarked that, ‘Those who were around at the time will recollect what a blessing that was. On just about every other British preamp of the period the presence of DIN sockets did not indicate conformity with the DIN standard!’

At the front, the 33 looked like no other pre-amp – other than a modernised 22. Customer loyalty was a huge part of the Quad client profile to prevent culture shock for users moving to the 33 from the 22, Quad provided an extensive filtering and tone control system, with small rotaries for the tone controls, plus a row of press buttons for source select and filter settings. A primary rotary knob served the combined on/off and volume functions.

Its sister, the 303, was rated at 45W/ch into 8ohms, producing 28W into 16ohms and was believed to be unconditionally stable into any load. Gordon Hill felt that it was, ‘Outstanding in partnership with the 16ohm ESL-57 the amplifier’s performance features low distortion and a controlled bandwidth of 20Hz-35kHz, -1dB. As transistor amplifiers go, the output impedance is a relatively high 0.3 ohms, fine for 16ohm loads, less good into lower impedances. At very low impedances, performance falls off.’

Various iterations exit of the 303, including models adapted for pro use, but the basic model featured a special DIN-type connector to take the signal feed from the 33, with mains in via a 3-pin connector. Earlier versions (S/N 80,500 and below) used a miniature 3-pin Bulgin socket, while later versions use a 3-pin IEC connector.

Gordon Hill remains impressed with the 303. ‘In complete contrast to today’s design philosophy, the 303 uses a fully regulated power supply. The genius of the circuit lies in the innovative use of “output triples”, which renders the current in the output stage virtually immune from temperature changes and ensures stable performance under widely varying conditions.’ Additionally, Quad fitted the 303 with automatic current-limiting to render it virtually indestructible under nearly any combination of input and output, including an open circuit or dead short across the output terminals.

As for the sound, well, let’s just say that a mint 33/303 combination will upset audiophiles who refuse to believe than vintage solid-state gear can produce satisfactory sounds. I lived with my 33/303 on a daily basis, using it 40 hours per week for four years, driving the LS3/5As on my desk. I found it so easy on the ears that, most of the time, I was simply unaware of its presence – high praise, I assure you. (While the ESL 57 is an obvious match, you simply hear it with LS3/5As.) Clean, sweet, devoid of the nastiness of most early tranny amps – it stood out amongst its contemporaries as a harbinger of doom for the commercial dominance of the valve.

Gordon Hill felt that, ‘Certainly with 16 ohm loads, the amplifier behaves impeccably. On loads where the impedance plunges heavily at low frequencies, the amplifier can run out of steam and its 4 ohm performance is just about adequate. That said, there are thousands in current use all over the world and, in its day, the 303 was extensively employed in domestic, broadcasting and professional applications, satisfied users including (improbably) Pink Floyd.’

Inevitably, what goes around, comes around, and, as of 2005, Quad – as do McIntosh, Audio Research and others – produces both tube and solid-state ranges. This year, Quad relaunched a facsimile of the Quad II valve amp. But will they ever reissue the 33/303? Unlikely, and for two reasons. I was once told – emphatically – that both pieces would be too expensive to produce today, using the methods and technology of their day. Change the innards to surface-mount technology, ICs, etc, well, it wouldn’t be a 33/303, then, would it?

And the other reason? The survival rates of both the 33 and the 303 are so high that, at any given time, the classifieds and the audio fairs are full of them, at bargain prices. And, yes, Quad will still repair them.

The 33/303 combination ranks amongst Quad’s all-time best-sellers. As for the disproportionate number of 33 vs 303 sales, Quad accounts for that by reminding us that the arrival of the 405 power amplifier preceded the arrival of a matching pre-amp – the 44 – by four years, so a number of 405s were sold with 33s.

Quad 33 Control Unit: 120,000 produced, 1967-1982
Quad 303 Power Amplifier: 94,000 produced, 1967-1985

‘My’ Peter and Peter Bax [Baxandall] worked together on the 33 and 303 and did their triples [a way of making output devices so that the biasing wouldn’t shift with changes of temperature], which then came out in 1967. That worked very well, so the 33/303 really started to motor, although we managed to build into the 33 a catastrophic failure.

They used to have these bloody little plug-in circuit boards that were frightfully dinky and frightfully clever and we thought we could change those for servicing, etc. It was done for all the right reasons. But the original edge connectors had tinned contacts and the boards were silver-copper, and of course with subtle vibrations they went through the tinning and oxidised, so you got resistance building up in them.

Read more about the crazy Quad story on Page 2 . . .

We started to get reports of intermittent performance and again we had a lot of internal arguments. I said, Look, something is wrong we’re getting far too high a failure rate. No, it’s not, it’s fine, it’s fine. Because, of course, when we looked at it, it worked, because the first time you take a board out and put it back in, you get a connection. We had about a year of arguing before I could persuade people that there was a real problem out there. We then had to gold-plate the contacts. Unfortunately, because we had cracking after-sales service, everybody always thought the 33 was a very reliable product, when the first 20,000 all went bloody wrong.

Peter used to do the industrial design, including the 33/303, did it all and the office was just littered with mock-ups of what it might look like. The 303 was easy because the Quad II was this shape and we had a cabinet that it fitted in. 303 was exactly the same shape [as the II]. That was the way power amplifiers should be – actually, no good logic why a transistor amplifier ought to be like that other than that we had to get the power transformer in somewhere and what do you do with the electrolytics?

That was another interesting thing. The original electrolytics were installed this way up. As they warm up, they expand and when they cool down they contract, so they suck air in. The air bubble eventually rises to the top of the electrolytic so eventually they all void themselves onto the printed circuit board. Blaaap!! If you put them this way up, though, they just puff in and out at the top. We did that after about 50,000 of them. (Laughs.)

In many respects, actually in many ways [Peter] made life more difficult for our customers, although he thought he was doing them a favour. When the 33 came out, people said, ‘I’m not buying it with that bloody marigold thing on it.’ Well, Peter loved that, he thought this was great. And customers would come up and say, ‘Well, I’m not going to buy that unless you take that marigold thing off. You’ll have to change that.’ And he’d say, ‘Well, I’m not. Bugger off. Go and buy a Leak. Go on, bugger off.’

And actually, we did manage to sell quite a lot of those, but we’d have sold an awful lot more. There is absolutely no doubt in my mind that if we’d been a bit more – we were customer-friendly, but not ‘customer-centric’…if you bought it, you got jolly good attention, but what about the other 99.99 percent of the population that didn’t buy the bloody thing? Because they didn’t like the fact that it was marigold, and actually it looked a bit peculiar and rinky-dink and of course that’s why Yamaha and Pioneer and Sony came in and took over the world. Yes, they were good at manufacturing and we were absolutely crap at it.

No question, it went off like a rocket – I should imagine our business just about doubled the year that we brought [them] out. And it greatly expanded the overseas markets, too.

We got lots of flak from the press when we carried on making valve amplifiers when everybody else was making transistor amplifiers. And Mr. Walker said, ‘We’re not going to make transistor amplifiers until it’s as good as our valve ones. As good as it sounds, its reliability, its price.’

A lot of the inside detail of the 33 was mine, but not the 303, and I did the test gear for the pre-amp. John Collinson – a clever chap, quite important to my training – designed the main circuit and it was finished by Mr. Walker. We started with Quad 22 test gear and a switch box. We did it all very carefully, we fed the same signal through and tested the prototype, and through the set under test, and used a differential amplifier to look at the difference. So as long as you looked at all the different circuits within the pre-amp, the semi-trained technical operator had to see a straight line all the while, whatever they did.

I might also have done some honing of the circuit, like the pre-amplifier for disc. I did the actual values selection I didn’t change the actual topology of the circuit. It’s a detail thing. We didn’t do anything for 78s at all, but we made the RIAA as close as we possibly could – nowhere near as good as the 44, but a lot better than the 22.

We were looking for a new preamplifier while the 33 was still running. So the 33 went on for a few years while we were making the 44. The things we wanted to do were all in the 44 – marketing wanted all of the inputs on separate modules so that it could be made to measure. They wanted more inputs than the 33. Mr. Walker and the senior engineers had been doing tests on tone controls, because no doubt you’ve heard Mr. Walker say that we put them on as a marketing exercise because our dealers said they couldn’t sell the stuff without it. But we also put on the cancel facility, so that customers, having paid for these expensive tone controls could then switch them off. (Laughs.) The old-fashioned tone controls hadn’t really much use once you’d got into the 1970s. They had when you were playing 78s, but not into the 1970s.

A cultural history of theatre in antiquity

The cultural history of theatre in Antiquity (meaning Greek and Roman civilisations) is the first volume of a collection of six books that explores the cultural history of theatre from a chronological (since Antiquity) and thematic point of view (each volume contains the same ten chapter headings). The focus of this work is not on the literary interpretation of the ancient theatrical texts, but the exploration of the networks of production, circulation, and knowledge of Greek and Roman theatres.

In the introduction, Revermann, the editor of the volume, contextualises the book in its field, the cultural study of Graeco-Roman theatre, and highlights what is new in its approach. He states that the primary fresh perspective of this book lies in the analysis of the Greek and Rome theatres in conjunction with one another, avoiding treating them as isolated historical experiences. This approach is not entirely new, however. The companion edited by Marianne McDonald and J. Michael Walton also joined the Greek and Rome theatres together.[1]

In the first chapter, Revermann examines the frameworks that enabled performance in Graeco-Roman theatre. He describes the functioning of festivals, discussing ceremonies that took place before the plays, the jury selection and the voting procedure for the best performance, as well as the size of the audience and the choice of Chorus. He points out features that characterise these frameworks, such as competitiveness between producers of theatre (enablers, actors, dramatists, chorêgoi), privatisation of theatrical frameworks, in which performances occurred outside public festivals, and the non-purely economic character of the ancient theatre. Then follows a very informative outline of the institutional development of theatre in classical Athens and republican Rome. The choice to present this outline in the first chapter proved to be very helpful for the reader because other contributors refer back to this institutional arrangement from time to time.

Sean Gurd’s contribution stands apart from the other books’ chapters. He is the only one who places a question mark right next to the chapter heading, as well as offering a piece that is almost entirely dedicated to classical Greek theatre. Gurd’s main argument is that Greek drama was non-functional because it was separated from its social context. Rather, the imaginary world of tragedy explores tensions between wealthy or powerful individuals and the civic collective. Specific arguments made by Gurd to defend his case, however, are not entirely persuasive. For example, the small number of performers in ancient comedy and tragedy would be an indicator of the non-functionality of drama, as Gurd argues (40-41), only if we assume that the number of performers measures the social relevance of theatre. Nevertheless, I do not see why we should reduce the social functions of drama in such a way. Despite being sceptical about the social functionality of ancient theatre, Gurd ends up asserting that the tragic representation of aristocrats would be “a kind of democratic delegitimation of a real historical class with a tendency to enjoy disproportionate amounts of power and influence” (45). This idea seems quite similar to other scholars who firmly defend the social function of Greek tragedy, such as Richard Seaford. Therefore, the reader finishes this chapter wondering why Gurd insists on the non-functionality of drama. Furthermore, the democratic delegitimation of the aristocrats is difficult to reconcile with Gurd’s previous statement that the institution of democracy did not alter the tragic form (43). Therefore, Gurd’s presentation of the social function of theatre in classical Greece is rather idiosyncratic and overlooks the leading debaters of this issue, such as Jean-Pierre Vernant, Froma Zeitlin, and Richard Seaford. Hanink’s exploration in this volume (190-2), of the contrast between Greek and Roman culture regarding the social function of theatre, seems a better way to structure the analysis of this subject.

Ruffell’s contribution focuses on the role of women in ancient theatre. She notes the absence of women in theatre production, except in mime and pantomime of the Roman period. Concerning the women’s attendance in theatre, she contrasts the more explicit information from Roman sources with ambiguous evidence concerning the women’s role as consumers in Greek theatre. In the central part of her chapter, Ruffell addresses sex and gender in an impressive number of Greek and Roman dramas. There is always a risk of just summarising the plot of plays when one only has a few pages to cover such significant ground. Ruffell avoids this problem and offers insightful remarks on individual plays, such as Euripides’ Hippolytus and Sophocles’ Trachiniae. Certain aspects of Ruffell’s interpretation, however, are debatable, such as her idea that “Dionysus exacts vengeance on Thebes” (59) or that the women in Aristophanes’ Lysistrata and Assemblywomen aim to “replace democracy with a female-run communist utopia” (58). In Euripides’ Bacchae, Dionysus exacts vengeance on Pentheus, the impious king of Thebes, and on his ruling household rather than on Thebes. Besides, there is not, in my view, any attempt to replace the male political regime with female communism in Aristophanes’ Lysistrata.

Wiles, in one of the most innovative chapters in the book, demonstrates that our understanding of ancient theatre is improved when we take into account how the ancient audience conceived the physical environment of their theatres. Taking the ancient theatre of Thorikos as an example, Wiles conjectures that spectators could have connected Antigone’s exit to the cave in Sophocles’ Antigone with the existing chamber in the ground plan of the theatre in Thorikos. This idea is an exercise in imagination, of course, because we do not know if Sophocles’ Antigone was performed in Thorikos. In any case, this line of thought can broaden our interpretation of ancient theatre by incorporating the wider spatial environment which encompasses actors, spectators and the stage.

In the fifth chapter, Hadley approaches ancient theatre as a mobile art-form which circulated in various locations across the Mediterranean. He envisages drama as “the fundamental expression of Greekness in a colonial Mediterranean context” (85). Against the Athenocentric approach to Greek drama, Hadley argues in favour of a remarkable dramatic performance tradition outside Athens. He states that we need to understand the impact on the reception of a work of art caused by a change in medium, which he calls “remediatization”. Despite his methodological concerns, Hadley seems too confident that a ceramic vase can illustrate a specific tragic scene. In doing so, he aligns with Oliver Taplin and other scholars, such as Johanna Hanink, who also has a chapter in this volume under review (see pages 183-4). They approach the relationship between the written text and the visual arts from a rather logocentric perspective. It is tempting, indeed, to deem the ceramics of Magna Graecia an illustration of the presence of Greek tragedies in other parts of the Mediterranean, confirming the circulation of this form of art in the fourth century BC. The price to pay for this, however, is minimising the differences between the semiotic codes of painting vases and tragic plays. Hence, Hadley’s case depends on whether or not we read these vase-paintings as evidence for theatrical circulation outside Attica.

Revermann’s second chapter examines “the process (intellectual, emotional, evaluative) with which ancient audiences, of whatever description, made sense of theatre” (104). He explores the prevalent ranges of responses to the ancient theatre in Antiquity. He discusses the well-known interpretative community of philosophers, especially Plato and Aristotle, as well as the less discussed Lucian’s treatise On the Dance. He concludes this chapter by addressing how the Christian interpretative community viewed theatre.

Lightfoot’ s contribution investigates theatre as a business. She examines the funding of drama and professionals involved in it. Lightfoot interestingly discusses the evolution of producers’ lifestyle in Antiquity, including the emergence of artists’ guilds in the Hellenistic period and their expansion in Roman times.

Sells’s chapter discusses how theatrical genres of Antiquity used their unique repertoire to turn relevant cultural themes into types of plots. He explores, for instance, the “nostos” (“homecoming”) in Greek tragedy, stating, “the nostos provides an excellent dramaturgical vehicle for highlighting tragedy’s concern with events of the past in the context of present problems” (145). This plot, Sells argues, was also useful for tragic playwrights to examine related topics, such as female transgression or marital unhappiness. He also explores how other forms of theatre represented female and divine agents according to each genre’s characteristics.

Möllendorff’s contribution is dedicated to the technological aspects of ancient theatrical performance. It is well known how difficult it is to grasp the principles of ancient stagecraft due to the lack of explicit stage directions in the surviving plays. As a result, the actual use of machines, scenery, props, and masks has to be evaluated mainly using the theatrical text itself. Möllendorff is especially helpful in contrasting and comparing tragedy and comedy regarding the semiotic significance of the crane and the ekkyklêma, the two most relevant ancient stage technologies (he lists the occurrences of these devices in Greek tragedies and comedies on page 221, n. 35). The use of the crane made it possible for divinities, for instance, to appear on a higher plane than the space of human performance, whereas the ekkyklêma was able to show the audience a previously interior tableau through a rolling platform. Möllendorff interestingly argues that one of the primary functions of the tragic ekkyklêma was to sum up an interior event and display it as a result. Hence this device was used in tragedy to visually concentrate and make present an expansive and evanescent event that issues from the interior of the skene-building. Comedy, by contrast, used these stage technologies, Möllendorff states, as a way to parody tragedy or to invert the tragic conventions related to the use of stage machines. In Aristophanes’ Acharnians, for instance, the use of the ekkyklêma appears as a single scene, in contrast to tragedy where the presence of the ekkyklêma is carefully developed to prepare on-stage characters and spectators for what will come. Although Möllendorff does not mention it, I think it is worthwhile to add that we do not have any certain ancient visual representation of these stage machines. Likewise, we do not have any archaeological remains of these objects. Nevertheless, based on the theatrical texts, we can be sure that they were present on the ancient stage.

Hanink’s chapter aims to “survey how knowledge about the theatre was generated, preserved and transmitted in Graeco-Roman antiquity” (181). She discusses the work of ancient scholars mainly from the late fourth to first century BCE, showing how crucial they were in the transfer of Greek theatrical knowledge to Rome and, consequently, to us. Through this type of “archival” memory, Hanink is also interested in identifying evanescent modes of transmitting cultural memory of theatre in Antiquity. She labels this type of embodied practice as “repertoire”, and she finds evidence of the transmission of theatrical knowledge from person to person and in “informal” reperformances, such as the presentation of Euripides’ Telephus in Aristophanes’ Acharnians. Moreover, Hanink contrasts the more significant interest that the Greeks show in preserving their knowledge of theatre with the Roman context, where the elite had doubts about the social relevance of the theatre and the status of the personnel involved in its performance. In doing so, Hanink demonstrates that the social function of the theatre was deeply connected to these arrangements in which the memory and knowledge of theatre were transmitted.

The five ancient forms of theatre (tragedy, comedy, satyr play, mime, pantomime) are coherently defined in several parts of the book. Certain disagreements between the authors, however, could have been explored further. For example, Gurd holds that the audience did not substantially influence the judges in Greek drama (40), whereas for Revermann the judges did consider the acclamations of the spectators (14). Hadley starts his contribution with the telling sentence, “Drama, a quintessentially Athenian creation” (83), but Revermann localises two starting spots for Greek drama, Athens and Syracuse (7).

To sum up, this book surely makes a significant contribution to the study of the theatrical experience of ancient Greeks and Romans. The chapters are written in a style that makes reading effortless and include copious bibliographic recommendations in the endnotes. Scholars from classics, theatre history, or performance studies can find fresh and compelling interventions in this collection.

Authors and titles

Introduction: Cultural History and the Theatres of Antiquity, Martin Revermann
1. Institutional Frameworks: Enabling the Theatrical Event, Martin Revermann
2. Social functions? Making the Case for a Functionless Theatre, Sean Gurd
3. Sexuality and Gender: Off-Stage and Centre-Stage, Ian Ruffell
4. The Environment of Theatre: Experiencing Place in the Ancient World, David Wiles
5. Circulation: Theatre as Mobile Political, Economic and Cultural Capital, Patrick Hadley
6. Interpretations: the Stage and its Interpretive Communities, Martin Revermann
7. Communities of Production: Pied Pipers and How to Pay Them or, the Variegated Finance of Ancient Theatre, Jane Lightfoot
8. Genres: Drama and Its Many Unhappy Returns, Donald Sells
9. Technologies of Performance: Machines, Props, Dramaturgy, Peter von Möllendorff
10. Knowledge Transmission: Ancient Archives and Repertoires, Johanna Hanink

[1] M. McDonald J. Michael Walton, The Cambridge Companion to Greek and Roman Theatre, Cambridge 2007.

Thinking About Cannibalism

The discourse of cannibalism, which began in the encounter between Europe and the Americas, became a defining feature of the colonial experience in the New World, especially in the Pacific. The idea of exoticism, like that of the primitive, is also a Western construct linked to the exploring/conquering/cataloguing impulse of colonialism. We now live in a world where those we once called exotic live among us, defining their own identities, precluding our ability to define ourselves in opposition to “others” and to represent our own culture as universal. This chapter reviews anthropological approaches to cannibalism and suggests that we may now be in a position to exorcise the stigma associated with the notion of the primitive. If we reflect on the reality of cannibal practices among ourselves as well as others, we can contribute to dislodging the savage/civilized opposition that was once essential to the formation of the modern Western self and Western forms of knowledge.


John Stuart Mill, a friend of Carlyle's, found himself caught up in other projects and unable to meet the terms of a contract he had signed with his publisher for a history of the French Revolution. Mill proposed that Carlyle produce the work instead Mill even sent his friend a library of books and other materials concerning the Revolution, and by 1834 Carlyle was working furiously on the project. When he had completed the first volume, Carlyle sent his only complete manuscript to Mill. While in Mill's care the manuscript was destroyed, according to Mill by a careless household maid who mistook it for trash and used it as a firelighter. Carlyle then rewrote the entire manuscript, achieving what he described as a book that came "direct and flamingly from the heart." [1]

The book immediately established Carlyle's reputation as an important 19th century intellectual. It also served as a major influence on a number of his contemporaries, including Charles Dickens, who compulsively carried the book around with him, [2] and drew on it while producing A Tale of Two Cities for his crowd scenes in particular. [3] The book was closely studied by Mark Twain during the last year of his life, and it was reported to be the last book he read before his death. [4]

As a historical account, The French Revolution has been both enthusiastically praised and bitterly criticized for its style of writing, which is highly unorthodox within historiography. Where most professional historians attempt to assume a neutral, detached tone of writing, or a semi-official style in the tradition of Thomas Babington Macaulay, [5] Carlyle unfolds his history by often writing in present-tense first-person plural [6] as though he and the reader were observers, indeed almost participants, on the streets of Paris at the fall of the Bastille or the public execution of Louis XVI. This, naturally, involves the reader by simulating the history itself instead of solely recounting historical events. [ citation needed ]

Carlyle further augments this dramatic effect by employing a style of prose poetry that makes extensive use of personification and metaphor—a style that critics have called exaggerated, excessive, and irritating. Supporters, on the other hand, often label it as ingenious. John D. Rosenberg, a Professor of humanities at Columbia University and a member of the latter camp, has commented that Carlyle writes "as if he were a witness-survivor of the Apocalypse. [. ] Much of the power of The French Revolution lies in the shock of its transpositions, the explosive interpenetration of modern fact and ancient myth, of journalism and Scripture." [7] Take, for example, Carlyle's recounting of the death of Robespierre under the axe of the Guillotine:

All eyes are on Robespierre's Tumbril, where he, his jaw bound in dirty linen, with his half-dead Brother and half-dead Henriot, lie shattered, their "seventeen hours" of agony about to end. The Gendarmes point their swords at him, to show the people which is he. A woman springs on the Tumbril clutching the side of it with one hand, waving the other Sibyl-like and exclaims: "The death of thee gladdens my very heart, m'enivre de joi" Robespierre opened his eyes "Scélérat, go down to Hell, with the curses of all wives and mothers!" -- At the foot of the scaffold, they stretched him on the ground till his turn came. Lifted aloft, his eyes again opened caught the bloody axe. Samson wrenched the coat off him wrenched the dirty linen from his jaw: the jaw fell powerless, there burst from him a cry — hideous to hear and see. Samson, thou canst not be too quick! [8]

Thus, Carlyle invents for himself a style that combines epic poetry with philosophical treatise, exuberant story-telling with scrupulous attention to historical fact. The result is a work of history that is perhaps entirely unique, [9] and one that is still in print nearly 200 years after it was first published. With its (ambivalent) celebration of the coming of Democracy, and its warning to the Victorian Aristocracy, the work was celebrated by Lord Acton as “the volumes that delivered our fathers from thraldom to Burke”. [10]

Review: Volume 33 - History

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33 The Series: A Man and His Designis a 6 session Bible study that builds upon many of the timeless truths taught by Robert Lewis in the original Men's Fraternity curriculum but also includes new material on authentic manhood. The series is designed to inspire and equip men to pursue authentic manhood as modeled by Jesus Christ in His 33 years on earth. Volume I contains six sessions that explore the basic foundations of authentic manhood and God's clear design for men.

This first volume of 33 starts with meaningful insights into the current state of manhood, which will help men navigate through some realities that have created cultural confusion. It follows by unfolding God's mandates for all men and offering a clear definition of authentic manhood that will help men on their journey. Each participant will learn the four "faces" of manhood and how to anticipate and transition through the specific seasons of life.

Journal of Women's History

American Jewish History Journal of Colonialism & Colonial History Feminist Formations New Literary History American Quarterly Journal of Jewish Identities Bulletin of the History of Medicine Journal of the History of Philosophy Reviews in American History American Quarterly Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, & Theory Journal of Asian American Studies Reviews in American History Studies in the Novel Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity Journal of Late Antiquity Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas American Jewish History Twentieth-Century China Tang Studies Late Imperial China

New Orleans Saints draft history: Review of 2016 selections

The 2016 draft yielded five players to the New Orleans Saints, including record-setting wide receiver Michael Thomas. The Saints drafted the third defensive lineman selected in the 2016 NFL Draft, Sheldon Rankins, out of Louisville. The five-year pro posted 20 tackles (13 solo), 1.5 sacks and one pass defense, adding one takedown in the NFC Wild Card playoff win over Chicago in 2020. Rankins had his best game in Week 5 of the 2020 regular season against the Los Angeles Chargers, posting five tackles (three solo), two stops for loss, two quarterback hits and one sack. In thrilling fashion, the Saints would go on to win 30-27 after kicker Wil Lutz knocked home a 36-yard field goal.

In 2019, Thomas put together the best season by a receiver in league history. The Ohio State product won his second consecutive NFL receiving title, totaling an NFL-record 149 receptions for 1,725 yards, the seventh-highest single-season total in league history and also a team record. Thomas' nine touchdowns tied for the team lead. Thomas was named first-team AP All-Pro and made the Pro Bowl.

In 2020, defensive tackle David Onyemata started in 15 regular season games, recording a career-high 44 tackles (20 solo) and 6.5 sacks, which ranked third on the team and first among defensive tackles. The 6-foot-4, 300-pounder defended two passes while adding 16 quarterback hits. In Week 9 against the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Onyemata recorded his first career interception, picking off Tom Brady with 11:05 to play in the second quarter and setting up a five-play, 27-yard touchdown drive.

In 2019, safety Vonn Bell finished the regular season ranked second on the team with 86 tackles (63 solo), had his first pick, and had a club-best five fumble recoveries, which was the most by a Saint since safety Sammy Knight's five in 2001. Bell currently plays for the Cincinnati Bengals.

Saints 2016 draft summary:

New Orleans selected Rankins with the 12th overall pick. In the second round, the Black & Gold went all in on Ohio State graduates, selecting Thomas (47th overall) and Bell (61st overall). The 61st overall selection to draft Bell was acquired from the New England Patriots in exchanges for both the Saints' third round (78th overall) and their fourth round (112th overall) selections. The Saints traded back into the fourth round, acquiring the 120th overall pick from Washington in exchange for the 152nd overall pick and a fifth-round pick in 2017. The Saints used the 120th pick by drafting defensive linemen David Onyemata. New Orleans concluded its selections in the 2016 NFL Draft by choosing running back Daniel Lasco out of California.

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Volume 33

To downsize or not to downsize: when and how does corporate downsizing create long-term value?

How does corporate downsizing contribute to a firm’s long-term value? While the extant empirical findings on this relationship are inconclusive, contradictory and&hellip

Performance indicators for technology business incubators in Indian higher educational institutes

The paper aims to review existing performance indicators in technology business incubators (TBIs) and propose some new indicators with a focus on incubation activities in&hellip

The mediating role of employee creativity between knowledge sharing and innovative performance: empirical evidence from manufacturing firms in emerging markets

The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between knowledge sharing (KS) and innovative performance (IP) through the mediating effect of employee&hellip

The effect of auditor narcissism on audit market competition

This paper aims to assess auditor narcissism’s effect on audit market competition (auditor concentration, clients’ concentration and competitive pressure).

Does entrepreneurs’ improvisational behavior improve firm performance in time of crisis?

This paper examines the effect of improvisational behavior of entrepreneurs on firm performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand during the economic&hellip

International new ventures’ international performance: a matter of network entrepreneurial orientation and network management activities

The purpose of this paper is to demostrate that commitment to developing knowledge sharing, coordination, adaptation and resolving potential conflict results in&hellip

Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behaviour: the role of job autonomy and supportive management

This study aims to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), job autonomy and supportive management with&hellip

The missing link: sustainability innovation practices, non-financial performance outcomes and economic performance

Innovation is the backbone of sustainability. Although many efforts have been made to conceptualize sustainability-oriented innovations, the impact of these organizational&hellip

For whom does the bell toll: a political analysis of criticisms of the Hawthorne studies

This paper aims to analyze the political background of the Hawthorne criticisms, positing that the political atmosphere of the 1940s, influenced by the decline of the new&hellip

Poor resource capital of micro-entrepreneurs: the mediating role of entrepreneurial orientation

Understanding the micro-start-up resources and its relationships with entrepreneurial orientation and performance is unique because it operates a business in a poor&hellip

Probing the impact of transformational leadership on job embeddedness: the moderating role of job characteristics

This paper aims to evaluate how transformational leadership can increase job embeddedness in their employees that persuade them to stay in their organization and how this&hellip

Optimization of delay time and environmental pollution in scheduling of production and transportation system: a novel multi-society genetic algorithm approach

The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimization of the scheduling of production and transportation systems while considering delay time (DT) and environmental&hellip

Can adaptive–academic leadership duo make universities ready for change? Evidence from higher education institutions in Pakistan in the light of COVID-19

In rapidly changing global village, individuals, organizations and the society are faced with various unforeseen challenges every day, and these challenges continuously&hellip

Does humility of project manager affect project success? Confirmation of moderated mediation mechanism

The philosophy of the conservation resource theory, this paper aims to evaluate the relationship between humble leadership on project success by integrating the mediating&hellip

Linking marketing and supply chain management in the strategy of demand chains via a review of literature reviews

This paper aims to assess the links among these demand chain constructs by conducting a full-scale systematic review of all demand chain management (DCM) literature&hellip

Analyzing interrelated enablers of industry 4.0 for implementation in present industrial scenario

The paper aims to present a systematic literature review to analyze interrelated enablers of Industry 4.0 for implementation. Industry 4.0 is an integrated manufacturing&hellip

Open strategy: what is the impact of national culture?

This paper aims to argue that national cultural context variables influence open strategy formation processes. This study suggests that country-specific differences may&hellip

Alleviating state boredom through search for meaning and affirmation of workplace heroes

Employee boredom is of concern to organizations because of its impact on employees’ quality of work life and productivity. This study aims to test the regulation of&hellip

Arresting fake news sharing on social media: a theory of planned behavior approach

This study aims to examine the collective impact of awareness and knowledge about fake news, attitudes toward news verification, perceived behavioral control, subjective&hellip

Reviewing and rebalancing the positive skew of emotions in transformational leadership

Transformational leaders have long been known to use emotions to motivate their followers and guide their energy toward the vision set forth by the leader. Much of the&hellip

Democratic leadership and organizational performance: the moderating effect of contingent reward

The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating effect of contingent reward on the relationship between democratic leadership and organizational performance.

Comparative suitability for promotion: ethical transgressions, culture and a third dimension of appraisal

This paper looks at the relationship between judgments of ethical behavior and organizational promotion prospects. The purpose of this study is to examine if an&hellip

Supplier evaluation with order allocation in mega-projects

The purpose of this study is to provide a model for evaluating, prioritizing and allocating orders to suppliers in the supply chain for mega-projects.

Theorising an organisational citizenship behaviour model for managerial decision-making: from history to contemporary application

This study aims to expand the theory of organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) to include “exterior” behaviours. By advancing the work of Blake and Mouton (1964) and&hellip

Job crafting, a bottom-up job characteristic of academics with an embeddedness potential

The frequent turnover of academic instructors (lecturers) to other organizations and countries despite the autonomies their job offer them necessitated this study aims to&hellip

Board independence and corporate social responsibility reporting: mediating role of stakeholder power

This study aims to examine the association between board independence and corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting and the moderating role of stakeholder power on&hellip

A leadership model for high-intensity organizational contexts

This paper aims to offer a new leadership perspective based on the premise that leader effectiveness depends on the context in which leadership behaviors are enacted.

Material internal control weakness with intangible assets, capital structure and commercial risk

This study aims to assess the influence of material internal control weaknesses (ICWs) on investment in intangible assets, capital structure and commercial risk of&hellip

Evolving uses of artificial intelligence in human resource management in emerging economies in the global South: some preliminary evidence

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in human resource management (HRM) in the Global South.

Postulation of India-Japan Vedic-Buddhist cross-cultural management cluster: conceptualizing a spiritual philosophy-based explanation for emerging theory

Though there is emerging research that induces a postulation for a Vedic–Buddhist (V–B) cultural cluster, good theory development requires not only generalizability but&hellip

Traumatic stress sufferers: work as therapy or trigger?

While a return to work following trauma exposure can be therapeutic, this is not always so. As with many topics related to traumatic stress in organizations, several&hellip

Helping coworkers only when I have more? Integrating social comparison, attribution and conservation of resources theories

Drawing upon conservation of resources (COR) and attribution theories, prior research in helping behavior has mainly focused on an independent view of the helper’s&hellip


  1. Dewain

    I mean it's the wrong way.

  2. Rahman

    the latter is very soulful!

  3. Radnor

    Competent point of view, in a seductive way

  4. Gaston

    Yes indeed. It was with me too. Let's discuss this issue. Here or at PM.

  5. Majar

    I apologize, but in my opinion you are wrong. I can defend my position.

  6. Ohitekah

    This one topic is simply incomparable :) It is interesting to me.

  7. Cadassi

    I have been looking for such an answer for a long time

  8. Ananda

    How to paraphrase this?

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