Norfolk II DL-1 - History

Norfolk II DL-1 - History

Norfolk II
(DL-1: dp. 5600; 1. 540'; b. 54'; dr. 26'; s. 32 k.; cpl. 411; a. 8 3"' 16 20mm`~ 8 21" tt.; el Norfolk)

The second Norfolk (DL 1), projected as hunter-killer shin (CLK-1), was laid down 1 September 1949 by the New York Shipbuilding Corp., Camden. N.J.; launched 29 December 1951, sponsored by Miss Betty King Duckworth, and commissioned 4 March 1953, Capt. Clarenee Matheson Bowley in command.

The first major U.S. warship built since World War II, Norfolk was authorised in 1947 as an anti-submarine hunterkiller ship which could operate under all weather conditions and would earry the latest radar, sonar, and other eleetronio devices. As a large destroyer leader designed on a light cruiser hull. she could earry a greater variety of detection gear than a destroyer.

After her Caribbean shakedown cruise (February 1954), Norfolk was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet and between 1955 and 1957 served sueeessively as flagship for Commander Destroyer Flotillas 2, 4, and 6. During 1956 and 1957 she acted as flagship for Commander Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet. In June 1957, Norfolk participated in the International Fleet Review as flagship for Admiral Jerauld Wright, Commander-in-Chief Atlantic Fleet and Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic.

By 1959 Norldk's 8 3" 70 eel. guns had been replaced by 8 3" 50 eel. guns and her 20mm. battery had beeni removed. In 1960 the addition of an ASROC launcher enehaneed her antisubmarine capabilities.

On 10 May 1960, an 83-foot Cuban vessel harassed Norfolk while she was patrolling the Florida Straits with The Sullivan~ (D~537) in international waters.

In Fall 1961 she took part in UNITAS II as flagship for Commander Cruiser Destroyer Flotilla 2. During the operation ehe performed ASW training exercises with the navies of Venezuela, Colombia, Eeuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. Norfolk repeated this cruise over the next hve years during which she served as flagship of Commander South Atlantic Forces except in 1962 when she was flagship for Commander Cruiser Destroyer Forces Atlantic Fleet.

Norfolk joined LANTFLEX 66 as flagship between 28 November and 16 December 1966. During this exercise she was ehadowed by the Russian trawlers Repiter and Teodilit. She proved her antisubmarine capabilities again as flagship for Commander South Atlantic Forces during UNITAS VIII in Fall 1967.

Norfolk was assigned to Commander Middle East Forces as flagship (17 April 15 October 1968). On this mission she visited Bahrain, Freneh Somaliland, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia. Kenya, the Seychelles, Mauritius, Malagasy Republic, India, Pakistan, Australia, New ZealAnd, Tahiti, Mexico, and Panama Canal Zone. In October 1968 Norfolk returned to Norfolk where she decommissioned 15 January 1970 and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.


Norfolk II DL-1 - History

This is the front third of the "destroyer leader" USS Norfolk, the lead ship in a new class of post-World War II destroyers. She was a great experiment. She new types of guns, a new type of anti-submarine warfare weapon (called "Weapon Alpha"), and a new hull design. For a destroyer, she was a large vessel (5,700 tons vs. 2,100 tons) as she was built on the hull lines of a light cruiser. Despite the size, her design is very pleasing on the eye and almost has a science fiction like feel to it.

However, like many experimental warships throughout the history of the Navy, Norfolk had many problems and was not a tremendous success. However, the lessons learned served the Fleet well in developing other future destroyer types.

11 comments:

I was aboard from June 15 1960 to June 12 1962. No one has mentioned that the Norfolk was the first shipactually put up after the war and opperated on 1200 lb. steam Was a great ship, however every time we made a full power run the EMs had to replace all the light bulbs. Also I want to tell you it was tough replaceing the running light on the mast, I did it. I could tell you about cleaning the search light, but that is another story. Bless the Navy and all who serve.

I was on board from Dec 1960 to Oct. 1962 which included the trip around South America where I served as interperter for the shore patrol in Montevideo and Rio, and was also on the high line crew with the Admirals five piece band playing "Anchors Away" on deck while we transferred old movies from ship to ship. Although we do it at night once to transfer a sick guy to our ship.

ps: The USS Norfolk DL-1 also had the highest and prettyist bow in the fleet.

My name is Leonid. I am from Russia. I am a navy engineer. My hobby is ships 50-ies. This is a very interesting period, when all the fleets were looking for new types of ships. USS Norfolk is one of the most beautiful ships of the transition period and I always wanted to make his model, but I cannot find good ship plans. Please, help me how to find such ship plans of USS Norfolk as part of the picture? Thank you.

Many public ship plans can be found at the National Archives (www.archives.gov).

My father was Timothy Russell and served on this ship. I am hugely grateful to anyone who served in the Navy, even though I was not even a blip on the radar. If anyone knew my dad, a real hardass, I would love to hear from you. His son, Cameron: [email protected] Thank you

My name is Richard Foreman. i served on this ship from 1957 to August 1959. it was a good ship and fully air conditioned which was good for me as I had asthma before going on this ship. It did spend a lot of time in dry dock getting upgrades of new sonar and ASROK weapons.

I served as a radarman aboard the Norfolk from June 63 to Aug. 66. I was the Captain's driver for most of that time as well. To Leonid above, concerning the model of the ship. I have a model of the Norfolk that I'm working on. 1/700 scale so it's tiny. Look around on the internet, you might find one. They're very rare.

I’ve bought old model of USS Norfolk DL-1 about two years ago and now trying to reconstruct it. Model is quite big (ca. 1,6 m, 1:100 scale) and very detailed. Hull and all other parts was completely made from metal. Now I need detailed USS Norfolk DL-1 blueprints. Does anybody know how to get it? If anybody interested in, I will send a few pictures of my model (present state).
https://photos.app.goo.gl/dLhakfx8fnJdLWmi1

Pawel, do you know where I might find one of the models like you have?

You might be able to find a set of blueprints from someone on the Norfolk Facebook page. https://www.facebook.com/groups/52859684301/

Also, I have a friend that might have a set of prints. He bought them somewhere, I think.

I also was abroad the USS Norfolk at the same time. I was a Seaman in the 1st division. I used a lot of “BRASSO” on the ships bell.


Contents

Early history Edit

Sandringham is recorded in the Domesday Book as "sant-Dersingham" and the land was awarded to a Norman knight, Robert Fitz-Corbun after the Conquest. [4] The local antiquarian Claude Messent, in his study The Architecture on the Royal Estate of Sandringham, records the discovery of evidence of the pavements of a Roman villa. [5] In the 15th century it was held by Anthony Woodville, Lord Scales, brother-in-law to Edward IV. In the Elizabethan era a manor was built on the site of the present house, which, by the 18th century, came into the possession of the Hoste Henley family, descendants of Dutch refugees. [6] In 1771 Cornish Henley cleared the site to build a Georgian mansion, Sandringham Hall. [7] In 1834, Henry Hoste Henley died without issue, and the estate was bought at auction by John Motteux, a London merchant. [8] Motteux was also without heirs and bequeathed Sandringham, together with another Norfolk estate and a property in Surrey, to the third son of his close friend, Emily Lamb, the wife of Lord Palmerston. [9] At the time of his inheritance in 1843, Charles Spencer Cowper was a bachelor diplomat, resident in Paris. On succeeding to Motteux's estates, he sold the other properties and based himself at Sandringham. [10] He undertook extensions to the hall, employing Samuel Sanders Teulon to add an elaborate porch and conservatory. [11] Cowper's style of living was extravagant—he and his wife spent much of their time on the Continent—and within 10 years the estate was mortgaged for £89,000. [10] The death of their only child, Mary Harriette, from cholera in 1854 led the couple to spend even more time abroad, mainly in Paris, and by the early 1860s Cowper was keen to sell the estate. [12]

Edward VII Edit

In 1861 Queen Victoria's eldest son and heir, Albert Edward, was approaching his twenty-first birthday. Edward's dissipated lifestyle had been disappointing to his parents, and his father, Prince Albert, thought that marriage and the purchase of a suitable establishment were necessary to ground the Prince in country life and pursuits and lessen the influence of the "Marlborough House set" [a] with which he was involved. [14] Albert had his staff investigate 18 possible country estates that might be suitable, including Newstead Abbey in Nottinghamshire and Houghton Hall in Norfolk. [15] The need to act quickly was reinforced by the Nellie Clifden affair, when Edward's fellow officers smuggled the actress into his quarters. The possibility of a scandal was deeply concerning to his parents. [14] Sandringham Hall was on the list of the estates considered, and a personal recommendation to the Prince Consort from the Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, stepfather to the owner, swayed Prince Albert. Negotiations were only slightly delayed by Albert's death in December 1861—his widow declared, "His wishes – his plans – about everything are to be my law". [16] Edward visited in February 1862, and a sale was agreed for the house and just under 8,000 acres of land, [17] which was finalised that October. [18] Queen Victoria only twice visited the house she had paid for. [19] [b] Over the course of the next forty years, and with considerable expenditure, Edward was to create a house and country estate that his friend Charles Carington [1] called "the most comfortable in England". [22]

The price paid for Sandringham, £220,000, has been described as "exorbitant". [23] [24] [c] This is questioned by Helen Walch, author of the estate's recent (2012) history, who shows the detailed analysis undertaken by the Prince Consort's advisers and suggests that the cost was reasonable. [18] The house was soon found to be too small to accommodate the Prince of Wales's establishment following his marriage in March 1863 and the many guests he was required, and desired, to entertain. In 1865, two years after moving in, the Prince commissioned A. J. Humbert [26] to raze the original hall and create a much larger building. [d] [28] Humbert was an architect favoured by the royal family—"for no good reason", according to the architectural historian Mark Girouard—and had previously undertaken work for Queen Victoria at Osborne House [29] and at Frogmore House. [11] The new red-brick house was complete by late 1870 the only element of the original house of the Henley Hostes and the Cowpers that was retained was the elaborate conservatory designed by Teulon in the 1830s. [30] Edward had this room converted into a billiard room. [30] A plaque in the entrance hall records that "This house was built by Albert Edward Prince of Wales and Alexandra his wife in the year of our Lord 1870". [31] The building was entered through a large porte-cochère straight into the main living room (the saloon), an arrangement that was subsequently found to be inconvenient. The house provided living and sleeping accommodation over three storeys, with attics and a basement. [32] The Norfolk countryside surrounding the house appealed to Alexandra, as it reminded her of her native Denmark. [33]

Within a decade, the house was again found to be too small, [3] and in 1883 a new extension, the Bachelors' Wing, [3] was constructed to the designs of a Norfolk architect, Colonel R. W. Edis. [28] Edis also built a new billiard room and converted the old conservatory into a bowling alley. [28] The Prince of Wales had been impressed by one he had seen at Trentham Hall, [19] and the alley at Sandringham was modelled on an example from Rumpelheim, Germany. [34] In 1891, during preparations for the Prince of Wales's fiftieth birthday, [35] a serious fire broke out when maids lit all the fires in the second-floor bedrooms to warm them in advance of the Prince's arrival. [36] [e] Edis was recalled to undertake rebuilding and further construction. As he had with the Bachelors' Wing, Edis tried to harmonise these additions with Humbert's house by following the original Jacobethan style, and by using matching brickwork and Ketton stone. [28]

The house was up to date in its facilities, the modern kitchens and lighting running on gas from the estate's own plant [38] and water being supplied from the Appleton Water Tower, constructed at the highest point on the estate. [39] The tower was designed in an Italianate style by Robert Rawlinson, and Alexandra laid the foundation stone in 1877. [40] [f] The Prince's efforts as a country gentleman were approved by the press of the day a contemporary newspaper expressed a wish to "Sandringhamize Marlborough House—as a landlord, agriculturist and country gentleman, the Prince sets an example which might be followed with advantage". [43]

The royal couple's developments at Sandringham were not confined to the house over the course of their occupation, the wider estate was also transformed. Ornamental and kitchen gardens were established, employing over 100 gardeners at their peak. [44] Many estate buildings were constructed, including cottages for staff, kennels, a school, a rectory and a staff clubhouse, the Babingley. [45] Edward also made Sandringham one of the best sporting estates in England to provide a setting for the elaborate weekend shooting parties that became Sandringham's defining rationale. [46] To increase the amount of daylight available during the shooting season, which ran from October to February, [47] the Prince introduced the tradition of Sandringham Time, whereby all the clocks on the estate were set half an hour ahead of GMT. This tradition was maintained until 1936. [48] [g] Edward's entertaining was legendary, [50] and the scale of the slaughter of game birds, predominantly pheasants and partridges, was colossal. The meticulously maintained game books recorded annual bags of between 6,000 and 8,000 birds in the 1870s, rising to bags of over 20,000 a year by 1900. [51] The game larder, constructed for the storage of the carcasses, was inspired by that at Holkham Hall and was the largest in Europe. [49] [h]

Guests for Sandringham house parties generally arrived at Wolferton railway station, 2.5 miles from the house, travelling in royal trains that ran from St Pancras Station to King's Lynn and then on to Wolferton. The station served the house from 1862 until its closure in 1969. [54] Thereafter, the Queen and others staying at the house have generally travelled by car from King's Lynn. [55] Edward VII established the Sandringham stud in 1897, achieving considerable success with the racehorses Persimmon and Diamond Jubilee. [56] Neither his son nor his grandsons evinced as much interest in horses, although the stud was maintained but his great-granddaughter, Elizabeth II, has sought to match Edward's equestrian achievements and has bred several winners at the Sandringham Stud. [57]

On 14 January 1892, Edward's eldest son and heir, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, died of pneumonia at the house. [58] He is commemorated in the clock tower, which bears an inscription in Latin that translates as "the hours perish and will be charged to our account". [59]

George V Edit

In his will Edward VII left his widow £200,000 and a lifetime interest in the Sandringham estate. [60] Queen Alexandra's continued occupancy of the "big house" compelled George V, his wife, Queen Mary, and their expanding family to remain at York Cottage in the grounds, in rather "cramped" conditions. [61] Suggestions from courtiers that Queen Alexandra might move out were firmly rebuffed by the King "It is my mother's house, my father built it for her". [62] The King also lacked the sociability of his father, and the shortage of space at York Cottage enabled him to limit the entertaining he undertook, with the small rooms reportedly reminding him of the onboard cabins of his naval career. [63]

The new King's primary interests, aside from his constitutional duties, were shooting and stamp collecting. [64] [i] He was considered one of the best shots in England, and his collections of shotguns and stamps were among the finest in the world. [j] [67] Deeply conservative by nature, George sought to maintain the traditions of Sandringham estate life established by his father, and life at York Cottage provided respite from the constitutional and political struggles that overshadowed the early years of George's reign. Even greater upheaval was occasioned by the outbreak of the First World War, a dynastic struggle that involved many of his relatives, including the German Kaiser and the Russian Emperor, both of whom had previously been guests at Sandringham. [68] [69] [k] The estate and village of Sandringham suffered a major loss when all but two members of the King's Own Sandringham Company, a territorial unit of the Fifth Battalion of the Royal Norfolk Regiment, were killed at Suvla Bay during the Gallipoli Campaign. [71] The story of the battalion was the subject of a BBC drama, All the King's Men. [72] A memorial to the dead was raised on the estate the names of those killed in the Second World War were added subsequently. [73]

Following Queen Alexandra's death at Sandringham on 20 November 1925, the King and his family moved to the main house. [74] In 1932, George V gave the first of the royal Christmas messages from a studio erected at Sandringham. The speech, written by Rudyard Kipling, began, "I speak now from my home and from my heart to you all". [75] George V died in his bedroom at Sandringham at 11.55 p.m. on 20 January 1936, his death hastened by injections of morphine and cocaine, to maintain the King's dignity and to enable the announcement of his death to be made in the following day's Times. [76] The King's body was moved to St Mary Magdalene's Church, a scene described by the late King's assistant private secretary, "Tommy" Lascelles. "Next evening we took him over to the little church at the end of the garden. We saw the lych-gate brilliantly lit [and] the guardsmen slung the coffin on their shoulders and laid it before the altar. After a brief service, we left it, to be watched over by the men of the Sandringham Estate." [77] Two days later, George's body was transported by train from Wolferton to London, and to its lying in state at Westminster Hall. [77]

Edward VIII Edit

On the night of his father's death, Edward VIII summarily ordered that the clocks at Sandringham be returned to Greenwich Mean Time, ending the tradition of Sandringham time begun by his grandfather over 50 years earlier. [78] Edward had rarely enjoyed his visits to Sandringham, either in his father's time or that of his grandfather. He described a typical dinner at the house in a letter to his then mistress Freda Dudley Ward, dated 26 December 1919 "it's too dull and boring for words. Christ how any human beings can ever have got themselves into this pompous secluded and monotonous groove I just can't imagine". In another letter, evenings at the "big house"—Edward stayed at York Cottage with his father—were recorded as "sordidly dull and boring". [l] [80] His antipathy to the house was unlikely to have been lessened by his late father's will, which was read to the family in the saloon at the house. His brothers were each left £750,000 while Edward was bequeathed no monetary assets beyond the revenues from the Duchy of Cornwall. A codicil also prevented him from selling the late King's personal possessions Lascelles described the inheritance as "the Kingship without the cash". [81] [m]

Edward's concerns regarding his income led him immediately to focus on the expense associated with running his late father's private homes. Sandringham he described as a "voracious white elephant", [83] and he asked his brother, the Duke of York to undertake a review of the management of the estate, [84] which had been costing his father £50,000 annually in subsidies at the time of his death. [85] The review recommended significant retrenchments, and its partial implementation caused considerable resentment among the dismissed staff. Edward spent a single night of his reign at the house, bringing Wallis Simpson for a shooting party in October 1936. [86] The party was interrupted by a request to meet with prime minister Stanley Baldwin, and having arrived on a Sunday, the King returned to Fort Belvedere the next day. [87] He never returned to Sandringham and, his attention diverted by the impending crisis arising from his attachment to Simpson, within two months of his only visit to the house as King, he had abdicated. [88] On his abdication, as Sandringham and Balmoral Castle were the private property of the monarch, it was necessary for King George VI to purchase both properties. The price paid, £300,000, was a cause of friction between the new King and his brother. [89] [90]

George VI Edit

George VI had been born at Sandringham on 14 December 1895. [91] A keen follower of country pursuits, he was as devoted to the estate as his father, writing to his mother, Queen Mary, "I have always been so happy here". [92] The deep retrenchment he had proposed when commissioned by his brother to review the estate was not enacted, but economies were still made. [93] His mother was at church at Sandringham on Sunday 3 September 1939, when the outbreak of the Second World War was declared. [94] The house was shut up during the war, but occasional visits were made to the estate, with the family staying at outlying cottages. After the war the King made improvements to the gardens surrounding the house but, as traditionalist as his father, he made few other changes. [95] December 1945 saw the first celebration of Christmas at the house since 1938. [96] Lady Airlie recorded her impressions at dinner: "I sat next to the King. His face was tired and strained and he ate practically nothing. Looking at him I felt the cold fear of the probability of another short reign". [97]

George was a heavy smoker throughout his life and had an operation to remove part of his lung in September 1951. [98] He was never fully well again and died at Sandringham during the early morning of 6 February 1952. He had gone out after hares on 5 February, "shooting conspicuously well", [99] and had planned the next day's shoot before retiring at 10.30 p.m. He was discovered at 7.30 a.m. in his bedroom by his valet, having died of a coronary thrombosis at the age of 56. [100] His body was placed in the Church of St Mary Magdalene, before being taken to Wolferton Station and transported by train to London, to lie in state at Westminster Hall. [101]

Elizabeth II Edit

Since King George VI's death, Queen Elizabeth II's custom has been to spend the anniversary of that and of her own accession privately with her family at Sandringham House, and, more recently, to use it as her official base from Christmas until February. [102] In celebrating Christmas at Sandringham, the Queen follows the tradition of her last three predecessors, whereas her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, held her celebrations at Windsor Castle. [103] The taxation arrangements of the monarch meant that no inheritance tax was paid on the Sandringham or Balmoral estates when they passed to the Queen, at a time when it was having a deleterious effect on other country estates. [104] On her accession, the Queen asked her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh, to take on the responsibility for the management of the estate. [105] The Duke worked to move towards self-sufficiency, [106] generating additional income streams, taking more of the land in hand, and amalgamating many of the smaller tenant farms. [107]

In January 1957 the Queen received the resignation of the Prime Minister Anthony Eden at the house. Eden's wife, Clarissa, recorded the event in her diary, "8 January – Anthony has to go through a Cabinet and listening to Harold prosing for half an hour. Then by train to Sandringham. Many photographers. We arrive into the hall where everyone is looking at the television." [108] At the end of that year, the Queen made her first televised Christmas broadcast from Sandringham. [109] In the 1960s, plans were initiated to demolish the house and replace it with a modern residence by David Roberts, an architect who worked mainly at the University of Cambridge. [35] The plans were not taken forward, but modernisation of the interior of the house and the removal of a range of ancillary buildings were carried out by Hugh Casson, who also decorated the Royal Yacht, Britannia. [35] In 1977, for her silver jubilee, the Queen opened the house to the public. [7]

Sandringham continues to operate as a sporting estate. [105] Pheasants and partridge are no longer reared for this purpose, and Sandringham is now one of the few wild shoots in England. [110] Along with her equestrian interest in the Sandringham Stud, where she has bred several winning horses, the Queen has developed a successful gun dog breeding programme at Sandringham. [111] Following the tradition of a kennels at Sandringham established by her great grandfather, when Queen Alexandra kept over 100 dogs on the estate, the Queen prefers black labrador retrievers, [112] over the yellow type favoured by her father, and the terriers bred by her earlier predecessors. [113] Following his retirement from official duties in August 2017, the Duke of Edinburgh spent time at Wood Farm, a large farmhouse on the Sandringham Estate used by the Duke and the Queen when not hosting guests at the main house. [114] Sandringham is one of the two homes owned by the Queen in her private capacity, rather than as head of state, the other being Balmoral Castle. [115]

The house is mainly constructed of red brick with limestone dressings Norfolk Carrstone is also prevalent, particularly in Edis's additions. [116] The tiled roof contains nine separate clusters of chimneystacks. [117] The style is Jacobethan, with inspiration drawn principally from nearby Blickling Hall. [34] [n] Construction was undertaken by Goggs Brothers of Swaffham. [92] The principal rooms of the house are the saloon, the drawing room, the dining room and the ballroom, together with rooms devoted to sports, such as the gun room, or leisure, such as the bowling alley, now a library, and the billiard room. [119] The walls of the corridors connecting the principal rooms display a collection of Oriental and Indian arms and armour, [120] gathered by Edward VII on his tour of the East in 1875–1876. [121] Decoration of the house and the provision of furniture and fittings was undertaken by Holland and Sons in the 1870 rebuilding. [92]

Saloon Edit

The largest room in the house, the saloon is used as the main reception room. [119] The arrangement of entry under the porte-cochère direct into the saloon proved problematic, with no ante-room in which guests could remove their hats and coats. [32] Jenkins describes the decorative style, here and elsewhere in the house, as "Osbert Lancaster's Curzon Street Baroque". [3] The room contains portraits of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert by their favourite artist Franz Xaver Winterhalter. [119] The saloon functioned as a venue for dances, until the construction of the new ballroom by Edis, [122] and has a minstrels' gallery to accommodate musicians. [32] The room contains a weighing machine Edward VII was in the habit of requiring his guests to be weighed on their arrival, and again on their departure, to establish that his lavish hospitality had caused them to put on weight. [32]

Drawing room Edit

The drawing room is described by Jenkins as "the nearest Sandringham gets to pomp". [3] On one of her two visits to the house, Victoria recorded in her journal that, after dinner, the party adjourned to "the very long and handsome drawing room with painted ceiling and two fireplaces". [121] The room contains portraits of Queen Alexandra and her daughters, Princess Louise, Princess Victoria, and Princess Maud of Wales, by Edward Hughes. [123] White marble statues complete what has been described as a "tour de force of fashionable late-Victorian decoration". [92]

Ballroom Edit

The ballroom was added by Edis in 1884, to overcome the inconvenience of having only the saloon as the major room for entertaining. As this was also the main family living room, it had previously been necessary to remove the furniture when the saloon was required for dances and large entertainments. Alexandra recorded her delight at the result, "Our new ballroom is beautiful I think & a great success & avoids pulling the hall to pieces each time there is a ball or anything". [124] At the time of Queen Victoria's visit in 1889, the room was used for a theatrical performance given by Sir Henry Irving and Ellen Terry. [125] The present Queen uses the room for entertainments and as a cinema. [124]

Dining room Edit

The walls of the dining room are decorated with Spanish tapestries including some by Goya which were a gift from Alfonso XII of Spain. [126] The walls are panelled in oak, painted light green for Queen Mary who had been inspired by a visit to a Scottish castle. [85] [o] Jill Franklin's study of the planning of Victorian country houses includes a photograph of the dining room at Sandringham with the table laid for dinner for twenty-four, a "very usual" number to seat for dinner in a major country house of the time. [127]

Appreciation Edit

Sandringham House has not been admired by critics. Its chief fault is the lack of harmony between Humbert's original building and Edis's extensions, "a contrast between the northern and southern halves of the house (that) has been much criticised ever since". [37] The architectural historian John Martin Robinson wrote in 1982, "Sandringham, the latest in date of the houses of the British monarchy, is the least distinguished architecturally". [34] In his biography of Queen Mary, James Pope-Hennessy compared the house unfavourably to "a golf-hotel at St Andrews or a station-hotel at Strathpeffer". [46] Simon Jenkins considered Sandringham "unattractive", with a "grim, institutional appearance". [3] Pevsner described the architectural style as "frenetic" [28] Girouard expressed himself perplexed as to the preference shown by the royal family for A. J. Humbert, [29] a patronage the writer Adrian Tinniswood described as "the Victorian Royal Family's knack for choosing second-rate architects". [128] An article on the house in the June 1902 edition of Country Life opined, "of mere splendour there is not much, but of substantial comfort a good deal". [20] The writer Clive Aslet suggests that the sporting opportunities offered by the estate were the main attraction for its royal owners, rather than "the house itself, which even after rebuilding was never beguiling". [p] [61]

The fittings and furnishings were also criticised the biographer of George V, Kenneth Rose, wrote that, "except for some tapestries given by Alfonso XII, [q] Sandringham had not a single good picture, piece of furniture or other work of art". [130] Neither Edward VII nor his heir were noted for their artistic appreciation writing of the redevelopments at Buckingham Palace undertaken by George V, and previously by Edward VII, the architectural historian John Martin Robinson wrote that, "the King had no more aesthetic sensibility than his father and expressed impatience with his wife's keen interest in furniture and decoration". [131] In the series of articles on the house and estate published in 1902 by Country Life to celebrate Edward VII's accession, the author noted the royal family's "set policy of preferring those pictures that have associations to those which have merely artistic merit". [46] Exceptions came to include works from the collection of mainly 20th-century English art assembled by the Queen Mother, including pieces by Edward Seago and John Piper, who produced a view of Sandringham. [132] [133] John Piper's sombre palette did not always find favour with Queen Elizabeth or her husband, George VI remarking, "You seem to have very bad luck with your weather, Mr Piper". [133] The house also has an extensive holding of works by Fabergé, the world's largest, assembled by Queen Alexandra and later members of the family, [134] which includes representations of farm animals from the Sandringham estate commissioned by Edward VII as presents for his wife. [134]

Although not highly regarded as architecture, Sandringham is a rare extant example of a full-scale Victorian country house, described in the magazine Country Life as "lived in and beautifully maintained, complete with its original contents, gardens and dependent estate buildings". [92] The house, the landscaped gardens, park and woodlands are listed Grade II* on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens, Grade II* being the second-highest listing, reserved for "particularly important buildings of more than special interest". [117]

The gardens and country park comprise 600 acres (240 ha) of the estate [135] with the gardens extending to 49 acres (20 ha). [136] They were predominantly laid out from the 1860s, with later alterations and simplifications. Edward VII sought advice from William Broderick Thomas and Ferdinand de Rothschild, a friend and adviser to the King throughout his life. The original lake was filled and replaced with the elaborate parterres fashionable at the time. [137] These have since been removed. [138] Two new lakes were dug further from the house, and bordered by rockeries constructed of Pulhamite stone. [139] A summerhouse, called The Nest, stands above the Upper Lake, a gift in 1913 to Queen Alexandra from the comptroller of her household, General Sir Dighton Probyn. [140] [r] The gardens to the north of the house, which are overlooked by the suite of rooms used by George VI, were remodelled and simplified by Geoffrey Jellicoe for the King and his wife after the Second World War. [141] [142] A statue of Father Time, dating from the 18th century, was purchased by the Queen Mother and installed in 1951. [143] [s] Further areas of the gardens were remodelled by Sir Eric Savill in the 1960s for Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip. [147] The extensive kitchen gardens, which in Edward VII's time included carriage drives to allow guests to view the "highly ornamental" arrangements, [117] [t] were also laid to lawn during the present Queen's reign, having proved uneconomic to maintain. [149]

The 20,000 acre (8,100 ha) [135] Sandringham estate has some of the finest shoots in England, and is used for royal shooting parties. [61] Covering seven villages, the estate's other main activities, aside from tourism, are arable crops and forestry. [150] The grounds provided room for Queen Alexandra's menagerie of horses, dogs, cats, and other animals. [151] In 1886 a racing pigeon loft was constructed for birds given to the Duke of York by King Leopold II of Belgium and one or more lofts for pigeons have been maintained ever since. The Norwich Gates, designed by Thomas Jeckyll [152] and made by the local firm of Barnard, Bishop and Barnard, were a wedding present for Edward and Alexandra from "the gentry of Norfolk". [29]

In 2007 Sandringham House and its grounds were designated a protected site under Section 128 of the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005. This makes it a criminal offence to trespass in the house or its grounds. [153] The Sandringham estate has a museum in the former coach house with displays of royal life and estate history. [135] The museum also houses an extensive collection of royal motor vehicles including a 1900 Daimler owned by Edward VII and a 1939 Merryweather & Sons fire engine, made for the Sandringham fire brigade which was founded in 1865 and operated independently on the estate until 1968. [154] The coach house stables and garaging were designed by A. J .Humbert at the same time as his construction of the main house. [117] The estate contains several houses with close links to the royal family.

Anmer Hall Edit

Anmer Hall is a Georgian house on the grounds, purchased by the Prince of Wales in 1896. [155] Formerly occupied by the Duke of Kent, [156] it is now the country home of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. [157]

Appleton House Edit

When Prince Carl of Denmark (later King Haakon VII of Norway) and Princess Maud were married in July 1896, Appleton House was a wedding gift to them from the bride's parents, the Prince and Princess of Wales. Queen Maud became fond of Appleton, "our little house is a perfect paradise", [158] and their son, Prince Alexander (the future King Olav V of Norway), was born at the house in 1903. [159] After Queen Maud died in 1938, King Haakon returned the property. [158] The last inhabitants were King George VI and Queen Elizabeth who stayed there during a visit to Norfolk during World War II, when Sandringham was closed. [158] Lascelles considered it "an ugly villa, but not uncomfortable". [160] The house was demolished in 1984. [158]

Park House Edit

Constructed by Edward VII, [161] Park House has been owned by the royal family for many years. [162] The birthplace of Diana, Princess of Wales, [163] when the house was let to her father, it is now a hotel managed by the Leonard Cheshire charity. [164] In 2019, the charity developed plans for a £2.3M refurbishment programme, which were put on hold due to the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. The charity has since decided to discontinue the redevelopment and work with the Sandringham Estate to exit the lease. [165]

Wood Farm Edit

Wood Farm has been part of the Sandringham Estate since the time of Edward VII. In the early 20th century, it was home to Prince John, the youngest of George V and Queen Mary's six children. Born in 1905, the Prince was epileptic, and spent much of his life in relative seclusion at Sandringham. [166] He died at Wood Farm, his home for the last two years of his life, on 18 January 1919. [167] Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, lived at Wood Farm following his retirement from royal duties. [168] [169]

York Cottage Edit

York Cottage, originally known as Bachelors' Cottage, was built by Edward, Prince of Wales, soon after he acquired Sandringham to provide further accommodation for guests. [170] It was home to George V from 1893 until his mother's death enabled him to move into the main house in 1925. [140] Edward VIII, by then Duke of Windsor, told his father's biographer Harold Nicolson, "Until you have seen York Cottage you will never understand my father". [171] The cottage was no more highly regarded architecturally than the main house James Pope-Hennessy, the official biographer of Queen Mary, called it, "tremendously vulgar and emphatically, almost defiantly hideous". [u] [173] Nicolson described it as a "glum little villa (with) rooms indistinguishable from those of any Surbiton or Upper Norwood home". [174] He was particularly dismissive of the royal bathing arrangements: "Oh my God! what a place. The King's and Queen's baths had lids that shut down so that when not in use they could be used as tables". [65] "It is almost incredible that the heir to so vast a heritage lived in this horrible little house." [171] Nicolson's strictures did not appear in his official biography of the King. York Cottage is currently the estate office for the Sandringham Estate. [175]

The country park and the visitors' centre are open throughout the year. The house, gardens and museum open annually from the end of March until the end of October, except for 23–25 July. [176]


Norfolk II DL-1 - History

This site covers airfields in all 50 states: Click here for the site's main menu.

Cumberland Airport, Deep Creek, VA

36.703, -76.334 (Southwest of Norfolk, VA)

Cumberland Airport, as depicted on the April 1947 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

Photo of the airport while in use has not been located.

Cumberland Airport was evidently established at some point between 1946-47,

as it was not yet depicted on the October 1946 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

The earliest aeronautical chart depiction of Cumberland Airport which has been located was on the April 1947 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

Cumberland Airport was was not depicted on the 1956 USGS topo map.

The last depiction which has been located of Cumberland Airport was on the January 1952 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

It depicted Cumberland Airport as having a 2,700' unpaved runway.

Cumberland Airport was evidently closed (for reasons unknown) at some point in 1952,

as it was no longer depicted on the August 1952 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

A 1953 aerial photo showed Cumberland Airport presumably after it had closed.

It consisted of a single grass northeast/southwest runway, with 3 small hangars along the east side.

There were no aircraft visible on the field.

A 1963 aerial photo showed Cumberland Airport remained largely intact, with the runway remaining clear.

Two of the hangars had been removed at some point between 1953-63, but one remained.

The 1971 aerial view showed the runway & 1 remaining hangar of Cumberland Airport remained in the same fashion as seen in 1963.

A 1982 aerial view showed the last hangar of Cumberland Airport had been removed at some point between 1971-83,

but the runway remained clear.

A 1994 aerial view showed the site of Cumberland Airport remained clear.

A 2002 aerial view showed a road (Drumcastle Lane) & houses had covered the site of Cumberland Airport.

A 2014 aerial photo showed no recognizable trace remaining of South Norfolk Airport.

The site of South Norfolk Airport is located at Independence Parkway, west of Volvo Parkway.

Norfolk Naval Air Station Seaplane Base, Norfolk, VA

36.947, -76.28 (Northwest of Norfolk, VA)

The Norfolk seaplane base, as depicted on the 1932 Washington-Hampton Air Navigation Map #4.

The &ldquoNaval Air Detachment, Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads&rdquo was established in 1917,

with a complement of 5 officers, 3 aviators, 10 enlisted sailors, and 7 aircraft.

The aircraft, all seaplanes, were flown across the James River from Newport News,

and moored to stakes in the water until canvas hangars were constructed.

The new location offered sheltered water in an ice-free harbor, perfect for seaplane landings,

good anchorage on the beach front, accessibility to supplies from Naval Station Norfolk, and room for expansion.

Its mission was to conduct anti-submarine patrols, train aviators & mechanics, and run an experimental facility.

When the United States became involved in World War I, the size of the the Navy's air component was eagerly expanded.

The training of aircraft mechanics began in January 1918 at the Norfolk detachment & the first patrol was conducted 5 months later.

By now, the air detachment was recognized as one of the most important sources of trained naval aviators.

In recognition of its importance, on 8/27/18, the detachment became Naval Air Station Hampton Roads,

a separate station under its own commanding officer, Lt. Cmdr. P.N.L. Bellinger.

As World War I came to an end, the former NAS Hampton Roads saw erratic growth,

growing to nearly 167 officers, 1,227 enlisted men and 65 planes.

But, it was after the war that demobilization had threatened the future of naval aviation.

Within seven months of the war's end, Navy manpower fell to less than half its wartime highs.

On 7/12/21, the name was changed again under the command of Capt. S.H.R. Doyle, to NAS Norfolk,

with direct reporting to the Bureau of Aeronautics in Washington, D.C.

The earliest depiction which has been located of the Norfolk seaplane base

was on the 1932 Washington-Hampton Air Navigation Map #4.

The Airport Directory Company's 1933 Airport Directory (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

described the Norfolk Naval Air Station as having a seaplane landing area

in Willoughby Bay to the east of the field.

An undated aerial photo looking southeast at Chambers Field from a 1934 Navy Aviation Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

showed the original seaplane base was visible behind the airfield.

A 1935 Navy Aviation Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) depicted Chambers Field as a &ldquoLanding Field&rdquo,

with the buildings to the southeast being labeled &ldquoNaval Air Station&rdquo.

The earliest Sectional Chart depiction which has been located of the Norfolk seaplane base was on the October 1935 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

During World War II, Naval Air Station had a direct combat support role in the area of anti-submarine patrols.

President Roosevelt's response to the start of the war in Europe was the National Emergency Program of 9/8/39.

It resulted in fantastic growth for all Navy activities in the Norfolk area.

The combat support role began on 10/21/39,

when a 600-mile-wide Neutrality Zone was declared around the American coast.

Four Norfolk-based patrol squadrons, VP-51, VP-52, VP-53 and VP-54 were among the first units to enforce the zone.

The Hepburn Board had made recommendations to Congress in 1940 that would also double the size & workload of the station.

Since Chambers & West Fields were encroaching on the activities of the Naval Operating Base, it was decided to expand to the east.

East Camp, with an area of about 1,000 acres between the east side of Naval Station & Granby Street,

had been sold off by the Army at the end of World War I.

Congress authorized its repurchase in early 1940.

On June 29 of that year, a contract was signed with the Virginia Engineering Company for the expansion of the station.

The cost of expansion and construction was to reach more than $72 million.

Hangars, a new dispensary, 3 runways, magazine areas, warehouses, barracks and docking areas were patterned after similar existing airfields.

The plan was revised and approved by Capt. P. Bellinger, returning as commanding officer 20 years after first holding the job.

Bellinger insisted that as many structures as possible be permanent ones.

The air station was still largely composed of temporary hangars & workshops left over from World War I.

Many were unsafe & costly to maintain.

Some 353 acres were eventually reclaimed at a cost of $2.1 million.

Two large hangars, ramps for seaplanes, barracks, officer quarters and family housing were built.

This construction cut off Mason Creek Road & the Navy compensated the city by improving Kersloe Road between Hampton Boulevard & Granby Street.

Norfolk responded by renaming the road, Admiral Taussig Boulevard, in honor of the retiring commander of the Naval Operating Base.

In July 1940, the Federal government began dredging Willoughby Bay

and the Naval Air Station seaplane operating area at Breezy Point was constructed from reclaimed marshlands at the mouth of Mason Creek.

By the time President Roosevelt visited at the end of July,

the station was clearly reaching the point where it could support ships engaged in war overseas.

The July 1941 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) depicted Chambers Field as well as the adjacent seaplane base.

In 1941, the possibility of U.S. involvement in the war looked more likely.

Construction of more new facilities was pushed forward to match increased requirements.

These new requirements led to enlarging the construction project to 5 times its original scope.

At the completion of the first round of construction, Breezy Point's capacity was estimated at 72 seaplanes.

Locally, Fleet Air Wing 5 units flew under its operational command of the 5th Naval District.

Wing 5 units involved consisted of scouting squadrons, 12 Kingfisher seaplanes, and VPs 83 & 84 equipped with PBY5A Catalinas.

By 1942, NAS Norfolk was home to 24 fleet units.

From January-April 1942, the Eastern Sea Frontier recorded 82 sinkings by U-boats.

During the same period, only eight U-boats were sunk by U.S. Forces.

Eventually, coastal convoys were instituted & more aircraft became available.

German U-boats moved elsewhere & sinkings decreased.

To move closer to their patrol areas and free up space for the training of new squadrons,

NAS Norfolk-based patrol squadrons transferred their operations from Breezy Point to Chincoteague and Elizabeth City.

A June 1943 photo of a Grumman F4F-3S Wildcatfish &ndash a version of the Wildcat fighter mounted on Edo floats,

which conducted rough-water landing tests from Norfolk.

The 1945 AAF Airfield Directory (courtesy of Scott Murdock) depicted &ldquoNorfolk NAS (Seaplane) (Breezy Point)&rdquo

as having 3 large hangars, with 4 seaplane ramps.

A 1940s National Archives photo of Martin PBM Mariners on the Norfolk seaplane ramp.

A 1940s Navy aerial photo showing Chambers Field at the top left, the new East Field at the bottom center,

and the seaplane base at the top right.

&ldquoChambers (Navy)&rdquo, &ldquoEast Field (Navy)&rdquo, and the Norfolk seaplane base were all still depicted as active

on the April 1946 Washington Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

The 1950 USAF Pilot's Handbook (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

depicted the &ldquoNAS Norfolk (Breezy Point Anchorage)&rdquo seaplane base.

A September 1960 aerial view by Thomas McManus looking southwest at the Norfolk Breezy Point seaplane base,

with several VP-44 Martin P5M-2 flying boats (and what appears to be one R4D) on the ramp in the foreground,

and Chambers Field in the background.

Photographed from a VP-44 P5M-2 shortly after rotating.

A 10/10/60 photo of Martin P5M Marlins of VP-44 & VP-56 at the Breezy Point seaplane base, with Lockheed P2V Neptunes in the background.

Norfolk Sectional Charts through 1961 (according to Chris Kennedy) still depicted the &ldquoNAS Norfolk (Breezy Point)&rdquo seaplane base.

A May 1961 photo by Thomas McManus looking north at a VP-44 Martin P5M-2 flying boat on the ramp at Breezy Point.

Note the open bomb bay doors, aft of the engine.

Thomas recalled, &ldquoThis was the last P5M in service with VP-44,

as we were in the process of transitioning to the P2V-5F Neptune.

All of our P5M's had all been reassigned to NAS North Island, CA, for service with Pacific fleet squadrons.

November 1961 we deployed to Sigonella, Sicily & at the completion of our deployment in May of 1962 we returned to CONUS,

however not to Norfolk, but to NAS Patuxent River MD, where we were the first VP squadron to receive the P-3 Orion.&rdquo

Thus 1961 was the end of seaplane operations at NAS Norfolk.

However a 1963 aerial picture depicted 9 aircraft on the ramp of the seaplane base.

It was not evident whether they were seaplanes or landplanes, though.

By the time of the 1964 Norfolk Sectional Chart (according to Chris Kennedy) ,

the Norfolk seaplane base was no longer depicted at all.

Perry Rotzell recalled, &ldquoIn 1978, there were still landing lights in Willoughby Bay.

They were mounted on pilings, in the exact same arrangement you see on an IFR field.

They were parallel to the current main runway at the naval station. The lights were gone in 1983.

I once rode me bicycle on the seaplane ramp (oh, the freedom of those long-ago days!).

I stood on one of the ramps & noticed how time and water had eroded large chunks of concrete out of seaward end.

That ramp would not hold, say, a P-5 Mariner even then.&rdquo

As seen in the 1990 USGS aerial photo, although seaplane operations were no longer conducted at NAS Norfolk,

the former seaplane ramp remained intact, along with the 3 former seaplane hangars.

A dozen E-2 Hawkeyes were visible parked on the ramp, along with a number of helicopters.

A 5/7/95 Navy aerial view by Robert Sitar, looking southeast at the old PBY/PBM seaplane ramp & hangars at the Norfolk Naval Air Station,

with several Navy MH-53E helicopters parked on the ramp.

A circa 2005 aerial photo looking north at 2 MH-53E helicopters on the former NAS Norfolk seaplane apron,

with one of the former seaplane ramps leading down into the water at the top of the photo.

A 2006 photo by Scott Shea of &ldquoThe Old SP-31 Hangar (the last squadron that occupied the spaces is HM-14).

They are about to demolish this hanger very very soon (maybe next week!).&rdquo

Scott Shea reported in 2006, &ldquoHangars SP-1 & SP-2 have been completely torn down.

That was the hangars that housed the PBMs & PBYs.

SP-31 (which is one of the last of the hangars on the seaplane line) will be torn down this week.

I was stationed with HM-14, who have been in that hangar for over 10 years.

They were previously in hangar LP-14, which will be torn down as well.

Most of the original hangars on base are either being torn down or have been converted into warehouses.

The HM-14 Vanguards (an MH-53E squadron), is now in a new hangar where SP-1 & SP-2 once stood.

A lot of history went away with those hangars being torn down.&rdquo

A 2006 photo by Scott Shea of the Norfolk flightline.

Scott reported in 2006 that the location previously occupied by hangars SP-1 & SP-2 are &ldquonow occupied by 1 aircraft hangar (now building SP-36)

and next to that on the right in the photo is the new Airborne Mine Countermeasures (AMCM) Building

to house the minesweeping gear & the Seabees for HM-14.

The Hangar on the left is SP-31 that is about to be demolished. The new hangar (SP-36) is HM-14's new hangar.

They operate 12 Sikorsky MH-53E Sea Dragon Helicopters. I am a crew chief for that squadron.&rdquo

Scott Shea reported in 2006, &ldquoThe seawall is now all helicopters.

There are 2 other squadrons that operate H-60s on that line as well that are obscured behind the old SP-31 hangar.

They are HSC-4 & HCS-2. HCS-2 is the Fleet replacement Aircrew and Pilot squadron for MH-60Ss.

To the end of the line is the new AIMD Norfolk building

where they rebuild electrical components & engines for the aircraft based here at Chambers.

HC-4 (also a MH-53E Squadron) for the time being is working out of MILVANS in between the 2 new buildings shown in the picture.&rdquo

Scott continued, &ldquoThis new line also has 3 different helicopter pads,

the 'Dragon pad' (to the left of the MK-105 Magnetic Mine Sweeping gear that can be scene on the old seaplane ramp),

the 'Wolf Pad', and the 'Angel Pad'.

The 'Dragon pad' now has pad lights that were added in 2003, prior to that, we used to have to land at Chambers field & taxi over the taxiway

that connects the airfield to the seaplane line whenever we landed at night.

Currently that taxiway is being used as a road as the bridge that is on A street has been closed due to it being dangerous.

The Wolf & Angel pads are to the left of the picture.&rdquo

Scott continued, &ldquoThe 2 new buildings that you see in the picture were built in 2005

and opened just this year (March 2006) after the old hangars were demolished in 2004.

The new hangar for the MH-53E is only large enough to accommodate maybe 3 (definitely 2) spread MH-53E inside the hangar.

The rotor arc is 79' long, so add maybe 20' to either side of that & that's how large the hangar is.

We could put 4 spread MH-53E in the old SP-31 hangar.

The old SP-31 hangar also has some sort of elevator, presumably for loading ordinance to the old PBMs & PBYs.&rdquo

Scott continued, &ldquoRight now SP-31 & the small COMHELTACWING building at the end to the right

are all that is left standing of the old seaplane base.

The buildings behind the seaplane line areas are still there, including barracks & schoolhouses.

The old seaplane ramps are still somewhat used today.

One shown in the picture is used for our 'Sled Ops', when we use the Mk.105 minesweeping gear.

This one is located near the 'Dragon Pad',

the boat crews use another ramp to launch the boats for the Sled Ops.

Both of the ramps do not look in great condition

and they definitely couldn't support the weight of much more than a truck & a boat on a trailer.&rdquo

A July 2011 photo by Paul Freeman looking south along the former Norfolk seaplane flightline.

The site of the Norfolk Seaplane Base is located northwest of the intersection of 5 th Street & A Street.

(Original) Naval Air Station Norfolk / Chambers Field, Norfolk, VA

36.953, -76.303 (Northwest of Norfolk, VA)

A undated early aerial photo of the arresting gear test site used at NAS Hampton Roads starting in 1921 (courtesy of Andrew Payne).

The use of this site in Norfolk for aviation dates back to 1917,

when the &ldquoNaval Air Detachment, Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads&rdquo was established.

Initial operations here involved seaplanes.

The date of construction of the Chambers Field landplane airfield has not been determined.

NAS Norfolk was credited with developing an arresting device

to train pilots for deck landings aboard the fleet's first aircraft carrier, USS Langley (CV-1).

At the same time, the station also began work on the development of the catapult.

According to Naval Aviation News (courtesy of Andrew Payne) ,

&ldquo On 8/11/1921, the practical development of carrier arresting gear began at NAS Hampton Roads,

when Lt. Alfred Pride taxied an Aeromarine onto a dummy deck aboard the station & engaged its arresting wires.&rdquo

An undated photo of an Aeromarine sitting on a dummy carrier deck at NAS Hampton Roads during testing which started in 1921 (courtesy of Andrew Payne),

with fore & aft wires in front of the aircraft to keep it on a straight path during its landing.

In January 1923, the Secretary of the Navy ordered a detailed study

of the capacity of the bases & stations during war & peace.

In comparing the development of the fleet & shore establishments, only Hampton Roads met the requirements.

Lighter-than-air operations, important for off-shore patrols during the war, ceased in 1924.

A May 1924 USN aerial view looking southeast (courtesy of Pam Thomas) depicted Chambers Field as a rectangular grass field, on which was a circular blimp mooring circle.

A row of seaplane hangars extended to the east, and a large dirigible hangar was on the opposite side of a row of buildings along the south side of the airfield.

In an effort similar to base closure struggles the military has today,

civilian employees of the Assembly & Repair Department (forerunner of the former Naval Air Depot)

joined the Norfolk Chamber of Commerce in successfully fighting the planned suspension of aircraft overhaul work.

The training of air groups from newly-commissioned aircraft carriers such as Langley, USS Saratoga, and USS Lexington

demanded expansion, but appropriations were meager for shore establishments.

The test arresting gear wires & their associated equipment were removed from NAS Hampton Roads beginning in 1929.

The earliest aeronautical chart depiction which has been located of the Norfolk Navy airfield

was on the 1932 Washington-Hampton Air Navigation Map #4.

The Airport Directory Company's 1933 Airport Directory (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

described the Norfolk Naval Air Station as being located as the east end of the Naval Operating Base, opposite Fort Monroe.

It was said to consist of a 103-acre rectangular sod field, measuring 2,500' x 2,200', with a single 2,000' cinder runway.

A hangar was said to be marked with &ldquoUSN Norfolk&rdquo.

The expansion of shipboard aviation in the 1930s brought renewed emphasis to Naval Air Station Norfolk.

Reverting back to its experimental roots, development & testing of catapult & arresting gear systems took the highest priority at the Air Station.

The commissioning of the aircraft carriers Wasp, Ranger, Yorktown and Hornet

increased the tempo of routine training in navigation, gunnery, and aerial bombing as new air wings formed prior to World War II.

This demanded expansion, but appropriations for shore activities were meager.

Although congressional approval was gained in 1934 for the purchase of land

that would expand the airfield by 540 acres, the matter was dropped.

A 1935 Navy Aviation Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) depicted Chambers Field as a &ldquoLanding Field&rdquo,

with the buildings to the southeast being labeled &ldquoNaval Air Station&rdquo.

An aerial view looking southeast at the &ldquoHampton Roads Naval Air Station&rdquo=from a 1935 Navy Aviation Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

It described the field as having a 2,500' x 2,200' sand loam field & a hangar marked with &ldquoU.S.N. Norfolk&rdquo.

The 1935 Air Pilots Register (courtesy of Paul McMillan) depicted the Norfolk Naval Air Station

as being a 2,500' x 2,400' sod field having a 2,000' cinder northwest/southeast runway on the east side,

and a much shorter northeast/southwest &ldquoLanding Platform&rdquo in the center.

The 1/1/36 Commerce Department Airway Bulletin described NAS Norfolk as a nearly square sod field, measuring 2,500' x 2,400'.

It was said to have one 2,200' cinder runway.

A circa 1938-39 aerial view looking north showed the original Chambers Field,

shortly before the addition of the new East Field or the Seaplane Base.

At the outbreak of war in Europe on 9/1/39,

Naval Air Station encompassed 236 acres with 2 small operating areas: Chambers Field & West Landing Field.

The West Landing Field was west of the former exposition boat basin, and was occasionally used for aircraft operations.

The July 1941 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) depicted Chambers Field, as well as the adjacent seaplane base.

In 1941, the possibility of U.S. involvement in the war looked more likely.

Construction of more new facilities was pushed forward to match increased requirements.

Directives from Washington meant facilities had to be developed to operate 5 aircraft carrier air groups,

7-9 patrol squadrons, the fighter director school,

and the Atlantic Fleet operational training program for 200 pilots prior to their fleet assignment.

Further requests were made to provide training & maintenance facilities

for British aircrew from HMS Illustrious & HMS Formidable.

In all, these new requirements led to enlarging the construction project to 5 times its original scope.

At the completion of the first round of construction, East Field was estimated to have the capacity for 410 land planes

while Breezy Point's capacity was estimated at 72 seaplanes.

An 11/7/41 Navy aerial photo showing Chambers Field at the top left, the new East Field at the bottom center,

and the seaplane base at the top right.

The original Chambers Field was closed to transient aircraft during WW2.

Aircraft could taxi from Chambers under their own power directly to carrier piers, to be hoisted aboard ship.

&ldquoChambers (Navy)&rdquo, &ldquoEast Field (Navy)&rdquo, and the Norfolk seaplane base were all still depicted as active

on the April 1946 Washington Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

The original Chambers Field was evidently closed at some point between 1946-50,

as it was depicted as &ldquoNAS Norfolk (Chambers Field) (Closed)&rdquo on the 1950 USAF Pilot's Handbook (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

It depicted the field as having 3 paved runways (with the longest being a 2,580' northeast/southwest strip),

with a large circular paved area in the center.

A September 1960 aerial view by Thomas McManus looking southwest at Chambers Field,

with the Breezy Point seaplane base in the foreground .

A 1963 aerial photo showed a foreshortened set of runways (18/36 & 9/27), perhaps intended only for helicopter operations.

A large number of aircraft of various types were visible on the east side of the field.

A January 1978 DOD aerial photo of the original Chambers Field, showing several remaining runway segments.

A closeup from the January 1978 DOD aerial photo showing a large number of aircraft (A-6s, A-7s, helicopters, etc.) on the original Chambers Field.

Perry Rotzell recalled, &ldquoThe large building across one of the old runways at the former Chambers field was the Naval Air Depot.

I had some electronics-related training there in 1980.

They rebuilt F-14s & A-6s in those days. There were some heavily damaged F-14's stored there.

Some were obviously striped of parts, while others had torn-off wings & what-not.

And it was exciting to stand in the parking lot and watch H-46's do touch & go's.

They flew about 30' above your car.&rdquo

Perry Rotzell continued, &ldquoThe NAD closed in the mid-1990's.

At that time, the P-2 Neptune patrol bomber, 'Truculent Turtle',

famous for an unrefueled non-stop flight from Australia to Ohio, was stored near the NAD.

I was able to climb into the gutted cockpit & check it out.&rdquo

Perry Rotzell continued, &ldquoThere was a 250' tall communications tower adjacent to the west end of the right hand helicopter runway.

There were some weird looking covers over some of the protruding antennas.

One cover, which looked just like 2 aluminum bowls joined together, had a huge dent in it.

A friend told me a helicopter had damaged the bowl with its rotors.&rdquo

Two of the original Chambers Field former runways were still depicted on the 1989 USGS topo map, which labeled the site as a &ldquoHeliport&rdquo.

A large building had been built over the northeast side of the site.

A 1990 USGS aerial view looking south showed 2 former runways of the original Chambers Field still remained intact, but were marked for &ldquoHelos only&rdquo.

Over a dozen helicopters were visible parked on ramps on the southwest side of the field,

and a ramp to the northeast held a dozen F-14 Tomcat fighters, as well as other smaller jet aircraft.

A circa 2005 aerial photo looking north at a collection of aircraft at the center of Chambers Field which presumably have been grounded,

including an F/A-18, 2 E-2s, and 2 F-14s.

A circa 2005 aerial photo looking north at a hangar along the southern edge of Chambers Field with a CH-46 & several MH-60s.

A 2016 aerial view looking south showed 2 former runways of the original Chambers Field still remained intact, still used for helicopters.

The site of the original Chambers Field is located northwest of the intersection of Hornet Street & Avionics Loop.

Dover Airport, Wallaceton, VA

36.61, -76.39 (South of Norfolk, VA)

Dover Airport, as depicted on the September 1943 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

Photo of airport while in use has not been located.

According to Jamie Smith (who heard about it from a farmer), this airfield was "built in 1938 (or thereabouts)."

Dover Airport was not yet listed among active airports in The Airport Directory Company's 1937 Airport Directory (courtesy of Bob Rambo),

and no airfield was depicted at this location on the March 1943 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

The earliest depiction of this airfield which has been located was on the September 1943 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) .

It depicted Dover as an auxiliary airfield.

According to Rodney Johnson, &ldquoThere were about 4 Quonset hut at Dover Field.

Lake Drummond was used as a practice bombing range. The field was used to fly in the buoys which outlined a ship in the lake.

The huts were used to assemble the buoys. The buoys were put in the lake by boat.

There was a big path from the back of Dover Field to the lake - it was called Soldiers Path.

Buck McCoy&rsquos cabin was used as the call station for the 'raids'.

Planes that were not on the strike would sit on the ground at Dover or Fentress.&rdquo

The last aeronautical chart depiction which has been located of the Dover Airfield was on the September 1944 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Ron Plante).

It depicted Dover as an auxiliary airfield.

The Dover Airport was presumably closed at some point between 1944-45,

as it was no longer depicted at all on the April 1945 Norfolk Sectional Chart or the 1945 USGS topo map.

The earliest photo which has been located of Dover Airport was a 1/30/53 USGS aerial view, which depicted at least 3 unpaved runways. No buildings were depicted at the site.

According to Rodney Johnson, &ldquoThe buoys were removed from the lake in the 1960s using radar magnets with floats.

Many of the buoys were shot up with machine guns.

There is probably still communication cable in the trees.

Our family had 3 cabins in the swamp with over the 100 plus years in the swamp.

My Dad was the one who had to find the buoys in the lake. He found all but two.

I remember playing in the air field in the early 1960s.

We had a camp where we kept the hunting dogs & our jeeps at the old CCC camp on the northwest corner of the feeder ditch & GW canal.

My family tried to buy the airfield which was then a farm.

My funniest remembrances were using M-80 firecrackers to detonate the smoke bombs

that the planes would drop &ndash you could find them at low water,

and getting the hell shocked out of me wile playing with a magneto which I found in the airfield huts.

The big fire in the mid 1960s wiped out the huts & the CCC camp.&rdquo

No airfield was depicted at this location on the 1969 or 1982 USGS topo maps.

Amazingly, the 1989 USGS topo map still depicted a very detailed runway layout of Dover Airport,

depicting at least 3 unpaved runways (with a 4,000' east/west strip being the longest runway).

No buildings were depicted at the site, which was also unlabeled.

Jamie Smith reported in 2004, "It's a soybean or potato farm now, but you can still make out the runway tracks."

A circa 2005 aerial photo looking north at a former runway intersection at Dover Airport,

showing that the former runways remain quite recognizable.

Kelsey Gray reported, &ldquoDover Airport. the site was in agricultural production until 2009,

at which point it was put into a Conservation Easement (held by TNC) and the wetlands on the property were restored.&rdquo

After more than 70 years since the Dover Airport was constructed, a 4/6/10 aerial photo (courtesy of Les Parker) still showed a very distinct runway layout.

Kelsey Gray reported in 2020, &ldquo It is now maintained as a Wetland Mitigation Bank & some folks use it for hunting as well.

The project aims to offset impacts to wetlands within the watershed in accordance with the Clean Water Act.

Our company currently owns the property & we have the pleasure of occasionally encountering old bunkers while we&rsquore out doing our vegetation or hydrologic monitoring.&rdquo

The site of Dover Airport is located northwest of the intersection of Route 17 & Ballahack Road.

The airfield is bounded by the Intercoastal Waterway (the Dismal Swamp Canal) on the east, and by the Great Dismal Swamp on the west.

Thanks to Jamie Smith for pointing out this field.

South Norfolk Airport (W33), Chesapeake, VA

36.764, -76.258 (South of Norfolk, VA)

South Norfolk Airport, as depicted on the April 1947 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

South Norfolk Airport was not yet depicted on the October 1946 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

South Norfolk Airport was opened in 1946 by the Todd family,

according to an article by Norm Crabill in the 10/04 issue of the VAHS Virginia Eagles .

The earliest aeronautical chart depiction of South Norfolk Airport which has been located was on the April 1947 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

Jeanne Powell Jordano recalled of South Norfolk Airport, &ldquoMy father, Louis P Powell was a flight instructor there.

My father's era was late 1940s - early 1950s. Greenbrier Farms / Nursery kept their charter planes there.

I was an only child & my father took me to the Airport & up in the planes all the time.&rdquo

The Todd family continued to operate South Norfolk Airport until 1954-55, when Don Wilson took it over.

The 1955 USGS topo map depicted South Norfolk Airport as having 2 unpaved runways, with several small buildings on the northeast side.

The 1957 Norfolk Sectional Chart depicted South Norfolk Airport as having a 2,500' unpaved runway.

A circa early 1960s photo of Bill Morgan (&ldquoI'm the one with no hair&rdquo) & Don Wilson (kneeling) in front of a 1933 Waco that they had just rebuilt at South Norfolk Airport.

Bill Morgan recalled, &ldquoSouth Norfolk Airport. I started my aviation career there in the late 1950s & I also slept in the bunk room in the back of the office.

When I arrived to learn to fly the owner Don Wilson & his partner, Carol Newton, were breaking up.

In the break-up deal she was taking an airplane they had just rebuilt, a Funk with it's name on the door, ('Funk Yew Too').

So my flying lessons began with all the color that, Don, Mr. Wilson could produce.

We became good friends & spent every moment that I could at South Norfolk & eventfully went to work there.

Don was a pioneer of aviation. He believed everyone should learn to fly & thank God I was included in that because I was always short on cash.

The rates for renting a J-3 Cub were $7 solo & with an instructor $10/hour. He paid the instructors $4/hour.

Yes, he subsidized the instructors. He paid on the honor system. His rules were no rules.&rdquo

Bill continued, &ldquoWhen I started I had been observing a lot of the students doing mild aerobatics so on my 3 rd flight lesson I asked Don, 'How do you loop the airplane?'

The next thing I knew he was lining up on the runway at about 1,500' & up & around we went.

We leveled off & he said, 'Your turn!'

I don't remember what that lesson was all about but I could loop the hell out of a J-3 Cub before it was over.

I loved the grassroots flying & spent time at South Norfolk until it closed. I felt like I owned an airline after I based my Cessna 172 there.&rdquo

A circa early 1960s photo by Bill Morgan of a Piper PA-15 at South Norfolk Airport.

A circa early 1960s photo of Bill Morgan's 1946 Aeronca 11-AC that he purchased &ldquoone Christmas Eve on the field for $750&rdquo at South Norfolk Airport.

The 1961 Norfolk Sectional Chart (according to Chris Kennedy)

described South Norfolk as having 2 turf runways, with the longest being 3,250'.

A 3/30/63 aerial photo depicted South Norfolk as having 2 grass runways, with a dozen light aircraft parked on the northeast side.

Bill recalled, &ldquoIn 1965 Don bought a brand new Piper Cherokee 180 & was spoiling to take it for a real trip.

He asked me if I wanted to go on a little cross-country to his family's ranch in Jordan MT where landed in a alfalfa field which was over 5,000' high.

That was my lesson on density altitude & during the next 2 weeks I spent one of the most wonderful times of my life.

We flew around the Devils Tower & Mount Rushmore at treetop level (you would be shot down now).

When we came back to South Norfolk I quit my job & made up my mind I was going to fly for money

so Don put me to work roofing the hangar & cleaning the cow pies off the airplanes (South Norfolk was also a dairy farm).

Don also put me to work rebuilding J-3 Cub engines & airframes & soon as I got my Certified Flight Instructor, instructing.

In less than a year I was hired by Piedmont Aviation (owner of Piedmont Airlines) as a flight instructor & the year after that I moved over to the airline as a pilot.

Thanks to Don, the airline & others I didn't spend more than $500 on all my training (would never happen today).

The next 30 years I flew taildraggers, turboprops, business jets & Boeing's finest.

I retired after flying 737s, 727s, 757s & 767ERs to Europe & South & Central America.

Thanks to South Norfolk Airport it was a hell of a ride.&rdquo

The March 1965 Norfolk Local Aeronautical Chart (courtesy of John Ferrara) depicted South Norfolk Airport as having a 3,200' unpaved runway.

The Tidewater Soaring Society began flying out of South Norfolk Airport in 1966, before eventually relocating to Garner.

Duncan Richardson recalled, &ldquoIn May 1970 with plenty of hours but short on funds I was working my way towards a basic Commercial Pilots License planing to train as a crop duster.

A duster friend of mine had instructed at South Norfolk & suggested I go there to get my required hours of flight instruction.

I contacted Don Wilson, a wonderful kind man, who let me stay in a bunk room behind the office at South Norfolk for a month.

He would often invite me to his home for a meal too.

There was great camaraderie there, lots of Navy folk, and a cigar-chomping mechanic rebuilding a J3 Cub.

I recall Lee Dee & his wife, he a pilot with Overseas National who had rebuilt a BT-13 he kept at the field & taught his wife to fly on it.

Don owned a Cherokee 140 for instruction & a couple of Cubs on which I logged taildragger time.

My Instrument time included a night flight with Earl Faircloth who was just out of the Army, down to Fort Bragg where I was given a radar guided approach by the controllers.

Sad to see South Norfolk has long gone.

The best instruction a young pilot could get was hangar talk from the old timers & flying planes that could bite you if you were not careful.&rdquo

The 1970 VA Airport Directory (courtesy of Stephen Mahaley)

described South Norfolk Airport as having 2 turf runways: 3,300 Runway 2/20 & 2,300 Runway 9/27.

An office, hangar, and barn were depicted northeast of the runway intersection.

The airport was said to offer flight instruction (including glider instruction), and charter.

The operator was listed as South Norfolk Air Service, and the manager was listed as D. R. Wilson.

Starting in 1971-72, South Norfolk was jointly operated by Don Wilson & Alston "Steve" Stevens.

Stevens later took over the operation of the airport, and continued to run it for the rest of its life.

From the early 1970s onward, South Norfolk Airport operated under a continual threat of impending closure.

A June 1973 photo of a Piper PA-28-140 Cherokee at South Norfolk Airport.

Bruce Forr recalled, &ldquoI learned how to fly at W33 in 1974 while I was still in the Navy.

I had been persuaded by a buddy of mine, Shannon Ennis, who went on to fly for U.S. Air, to give it a try.

My first airplane ride was with R. Forsythe (CFI) and I soloed under my 1 st instructor, L.H. Tarkington.

I finished up my Private License with Paul Carr, a wet-behind-the-ears 18 year-old instructor, whose CFI still had wet ink on it when he took me on.

If my records can be believed, it cost me about $600 from start to completion of my Private License.

I remember a cigar chomping mechanic that ran the flight school.&rdquo

Dave Moniot recalled, &ldquoI learned to fly out of South Norfolk Airport in 1976 & knew Guy Stevens (Ray's brother).

It was indeed 'The greatest airport in the world'.

You could rent a Cessna 150 for $13 / hour, get a drink out of the old coke machine

and just pay for your time with the honor system by leaving money in an old desk drawer.&rdquo

A 1977 aerial view by Robert Powell looking north at a very popular South Norfolk Airport, with many light aircraft parked on the north end of the field.

Robert Powell recalled, &ldquoI bought my first airplane there, a 1946 Luscombe.&rdquo

A 3/18/78 aerial view by Kenneth Keeton looking southwest at South Norfolk Airport,

with over 40 light aircraft visible on the field.

Dave Young remarked, &ldquoI recalled my early flying lessons at the South Norfolk Airport. ol' Whiskey-33.

How I dearly remember every blade of dew-soaked grass on an early-morning pre-flight

before my wonderful instructor Gerry Putnam showed up (former USAF B-52 driver Ger was also a fellow SCUBA instructor at the time)

how I recall kicking the squadrons of rabbits up from underfoot just walking to the office to grab an honor-system clipboard with the keys.

rows of C-150's going for $22 / hour and the thrill of the O-200 coughing to life in the dead stillness of a misty summer morn.

Mostly I remember Ger's infinite patience with this landlubber learning the secret ways of the atmosphere.

Good bless the wanna-be aviation chile nowadays who still gets to experience anything remotely like that sense of excitement and freedom.

(as opposed to the sterile, codified, rectified, certified, bonified experience they -mostly- dispense at FBOs in 2009).&rdquo

South Norfolk Airport, as depicted in the 1979 Flight Guide (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

The last aeronautical chart depiction which has been located of South Norfolk Airport was on the March 1981 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

It depicted South Norfolk Airport as having a 2,600' unpaved runway.

Bill Stanton recalled, &ldquoI began my flight training at South Norfolk Airport (W33) on 12/2/81. My instructor was Mike Williams.

I soloed on 1/26/83, at South Norfolk after about 30 hours of instruction.

When I soloed at South Norfolk they cut out my shirtail & framed it & had it on display there.&rdquo

The 1982 AOPA Airport Directory (courtesy of Ed Drury) described South Norfolk Airport as having 2 turf runways,

with the longest being the 3,300' Runway 2/20.

The operator was listed as South Norfolk Air Service.

A 1982 photo of Carol Clements at South Norfolk Airport (courtesy of Jim Jarvis).

Jim recalled, &ldquoMr. Clements was my 1 st flight instructor.&rdquo

At its peak, South Norfolk Airport had 60 general aviation aircraft based on the field.

A main hangar held 3 aircraft, along with a cow barn used as a hangar to hold 4 Citabirias, and 2 other private hangars.

A stolen C-90 King Air was once dumped at South Norfolk, after delivering a load of drugs elsewhere.

South Norfolk hosted flight instruction, sales, service, crop dustings, banner towing, and glider flights.

Air shows were occasionally held, usually sponsored by the HRA Club & the Portsmouth Flyers.

Ray Stevens reported in 2003, of South Norfolk Airport, "My dad & my brothers ran it until it closed in 1985.

It was the greatest airport in the world."

South Norfolk Airport was closed on 11/5/85, according to an article by Norm Crabill in the 10/04 issue of the VAHS Virginia Eagles .

The property had fallen victim to rising land values, and was redeveloped.

In the 1994 USGS aerial photo of the site of South Norfolk Airport, the southern portion of the former north/south runway was still recognizable.

However, a new road (Independence Parkway) had been built in a loop over most of the former airport property.

A 2014 aerial photo showed no recognizable trace remaining of South Norfolk Airport.

The site of South Norfolk Airport is located at Independence Parkway, west of Volvo Parkway.

Thanks to Jeff Mitchell for pointing out this field.

Glenrock Airport, Norfolk, VA

36.858, -76.205 (South of Norfolk International Airport, VA)

Glenrock Airport, as depicted on the 1935 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Roger Connor).

This small general aviation airport was located on the eastern edge of the city of Norfolk.

The date of construction of Glenrock Airport has not been determined.

According to the book "Virginia Airports" by Vera Rollo & Norman Crabill (published by the VAHS) ,

"This airfield was operating in June 1930 for rides in a Ford Trimotor."

A commercial license was applied for in 3/18/32, approved in 4/11/32 to United Flyers Inc.,

and approved in 12/6/32 to J. C. Hudgins for commercial operations.

According to the Norfolk Airport web site, commercial flight operations moved to Glenrock Airport in 1932,

after the Navy had opposed the expansion of Norfolk's Granby Street Airfield

because of its proximity to flying operations at Norfolk Naval Air Station.

However, Glenrock's tenure as an airline airport didn't even last a single year,

as all commercial flights to Norfolk were suspended in 1932 due to the effects of the Great Depression.

Glenrock Airport was not yet depicted on the 1932 Washington-Hampton Air Navigation Map #4.

The earliest depiction of Glenrock Airport which has been located was on a 1935 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Roger Connor) ,

which depicted Glenrock as a commercial or municipal airport.

The 1/1/36 Department of Commerce Airway Bulletin

described Glenrock Airport as a commercial field, consisting of a T-shaped sod field.

It was said to have 2 runways, measuring 2,450' northwest/southeast & 2,250' northeast/southwest.

The field was said to offer facilities for servicing aircraft, day only.

Glenrock was described in The Airport Directory Company's 1937 Airports Directory (courtesy of Bob Rambo)

as being a commercial airport, located on the North side of Virginia Beach Boulevard.

The field was described as having 2 sod & sand runways forming a "T" shape,

with the longest being a 2,600' northwest/southeast strip.

The earliest photo which has been located of Glenrock Airport was an 8/30/38 photo

of aviator Douglas "Wrong Way" Corrigan's 1929 Curtiss Robin in which he left Glenrock Airport.

Glenrock Airport was depicted as a commercial airport on the July 1941 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

A circa 1940s aerial view depicted Glenrock Airport as having 5 light aircraft parked near 2 hangars on the side of an unpaved airfield.

Glenrock was also depicted as a commercial or municipal airport on the 1943 Regional Aeronautical Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) .

However, Glenrock may have been temporarily closed during WW2

(due to wartime security concerns, as was also the case at many other small civil airports during the war),

as it was not depicted at all on an August 1943 Navy map (courtesy of Mark Hess)

nor on the 1944 Regional Aeronautical Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) .

The 1945 AAF Airfield Directory (courtesy of Scott Murdock)

described Glenrock Airport as a 50 acre T-shaped property within which were 2 sod runways, measuring 2,400' northeast/southwest & 1,850' northwest/southeast.

The field was said to have one wooden 70' x 60' hangar,

although the diagram depicted a total of 3 buildings within the airfield property outline.

The field was said to be privately owned & operated.

Glenrock Airport was depicted as an auxiliary airfield on the April 1945 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

and the April 1946 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Jim Stanton) .

Elaine Blair recalled, &ldquoMy father, Roy Sturgeon, was a Naval Pilot during WW2 & was separated from the Navy in September 1945.

After that he was operating his own aviation business of aircraft testing, inspection & ferrying service.

Private businesses were purchasing surplus Navy planes & he would ferry them to their new homes.

He was hired by a businessman, Mr. McBoyle of the Reedsburg Food Corp in WI, to help ferry one of the 2 planes he had purchased.

They left the Glenrock Flying School (according to the newspaper account) on 7/19/46.&rdquo

C. L. Batson recalled, &ldquoI was in the Civil Air Patrol at Glenrock Airport in 1952-55.&rdquo

A 2/10/55 aerial view depicted Glenrock Airport as having 2 unpaved perpendicular runways.

The most detailed depiction which has been located of Glenrock Airport was on the 1955 USGS topo map (courtesy of Adam DeLand).

It depicted &ldquoGlen Rock Airfield&rdquo as having a single 1,700' paved northwest/southeast runway.

The airport property was quite narrow, with 5 small buildings on the southwest corner.

The last aeronautical chart depiction which has been located of Glenrock Airport was on the January 1956 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

It depicted Glenrock as having a mere 1,700' paved runway.

Glenrock Airport was evidently closed at some point in 1956,

as it was no longer depicted on the July 1956 Norfolk Sectional Chart

According to the book "Virginia Airports" by Vera Rollo & Norman Crabill (published by the VAHS) ,

Glenrock's operating license was revoked & the airport was abandoned on 9/20/57.

C.L.Batson recalled, Glenrock Airport &ldquowas closed to make room for the JANAF Shopping Center.&rdquo

According to an article in the Virginian-Pilot (courtesy of Don Michalek) ,

"In 1959, JANAF opened as a commercial shopping area.

The name stands for Joint Army Navy Air Force & was an acronym for the original investors,

a group of retired and active-duty military, according to the center's Web site."

The Glenrock Airport was no longer listed among active airfields in the 1962 AOPA Airport Directory,

A 1963 aerial photo showed the shopping center which had covered the site of Glenrock Airport,

as did the 1965 USGS topo map.

As seen in a 2015 aerial photo, not a trace of Glenrock Airport appears to remain at the site.

The area has been heavily developed with retail shopping & other buildings.

Don Michalek observed, &ldquoIt is speculated, and does sound logical, that the unusual angle that JANAF [Shopping Center] sits at

compared to the intersection of Military Highway & Virginia Beach Boulevard has to do with the original alignment of the paved runway for Glenrock.&rdquo

The site of Glenrock Airport is located northeast of the intersection of Virginia Beach Boulevard & North Military Highway,

across Virginia Beach Boulevard from the Military Circle Mall.

Whitehurst Naval Outlying Landing Field, Whitehurst, VA

36.915, -76.195 (North of Norfolk International Airport, VA)

A January 1933 aerial view of the property which became Whitehurst NOLF (courtesy of Brian Rehwinkel).

This small military airfield was located only one mile north of the present-day Norfolk International Airport.

Whitehurst Field was not yet depicted on the 1932 Washington-Hampton Air Navigation Map #4.

The earliest depiction which has been located of the Whitehurst airfield site was a January 1933 aerial photo (courtesy of Brian Rehwinkel) .

Brian observed, &ldquoThe field is marked (by the Navy) to show what must have been the runway length for the property if used as an airfield

(although I don't believe the field was being used as a landing field at the time the picture was taken).&rdquo

The field was marked as measuring 2,250' x 2,150', consisting of 101 acres.

Brian reported, &ldquoI have seen reference to the field being used in 1939, and I believe it was used before that time.

I do know NAS Norfolk had auxiliary fields (OLFs) in the early- to mid-1930s (Glenrock Airport was one of those).

I am guessing, but based on this picture, it would not surprise me if the Navy used this field in the mid-1930s for one of those fields.

Of course, it is also possible this photo was taken for survey purposes and that the Navy did not use the field until later.&rdquo

However, Whitehurst was not depicted on the 1935 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Roger Connor) .

According to Brian Rehwinkel, a Navy memo dated 5/8/42 at the National Archives indicated that Whitehurst "was first leased by the Navy in 1940.

The Navy leased the farm from the heirs of William Lee Whitehurst. The Navy paid the family an annual rent of $4,000 for the 125 acre parcel.

The documents also said the field was originally scheduled to be used as a LTA (Lighter-Than-Air) auxiliary field, based on the navy's field at Cape May, NJ.

Obviously, that never happened."

The Whitehurst airfield was not yet depicted at all on the March 1943 Norfolk Sectional Chart nor on an August 1943 Navy map (courtesy of Mark Hess) .

The earliest aeronautical chart depiction which has been located of NOLF Whitehurst

was on the September 1944 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Ron Plante),

which depicted "Whitehurst (Navy)" as an auxiliary airfield.

A 6/6/44 aerial view looking north at Whitehurst NOLF (courtesy of Brian Rehwinkel).

The field was depicted to be an open grass field, without any buildings or other improvements.

Brian observed, &ldquoObviously, the [Normandy] invasion didn&rsquot alter the Navy&rsquos schedule in Norfolk on that day.

The caption for the photograph also refers to the OLF as 'Bee Farm'.&rdquo

Brian Rehwinkel observed, &ldquoSince this field was leased, it is very likely the lease was canceled at the end of the war.&rdquo

The last depiction of Whitehurst NOLF which has been located was on the October 1945 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

It depicted "Whitehurst" as an auxiliary airfield.

The Whitehurst airfield was apparently abandoned at some point between 1945-46,

as it was no longer depicted at all (even as an abandoned airfield)

on the April 1946 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Jim Stanton) nor on the 1948 USGS topo map.

A 1963 aerial photo showed that housing had covered the southern half of the airfield site.

The 9/9/90 USGS aerial photo of the site did not reveal any traces of a former airfield.

A 4/7/10 aerial photo did not show any remaining trace of the former Whitehurst airfield.

Brian Rehwinkel observed in 2010, &ldquoThe location today is covered by a strip shopping center & some nice residential housing.

The site is adjacent to the Little Creek Amphibious facility.&rdquo

The site of the former Whitehurst airfield is located southwest of the intersection of Route 170 & Shore Drive.

Monogram Naval Auxiliary Air Station, Driver, VA

36.82, -76.538 (West of Norfolk, VA)

&ldquo Monogram Auxilliary Air Station&rdquo, as depicted on a August 1943 Navy map (courtesy of Mark Hess).

A 616 acre portion of the Monogram Farm in Driver, VA was leased by the Navy in 1939

to construct an Outlying Landing Field to support flying training at nearby Norfolk Naval Air Station.

The Navy had purchased the property by 1941.

The Monogram airfield had apparently not opened by the time of the July 1941 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) ,

as it was not yet depicted.

The Monogram airfield at first had only grass runways.

Between late 1941 - early 1942, three squadrons (VB-8, VB-9, and VF-28) had conducted operational training at Monogram.

Construction of buildings began in late 1942 (although the runways remained unpaved),

and a Carrier Qualification Training Unit commenced operation.

An Acceptance & Transfer Unit relocated from NAS Norfolk to Monogram in early 1943,

and Monogram was commissioned as a auxiliary of Norfolk.

The Monogram airfield proved to be a disappointment,

as the grass runways were closed about 35% of the time due to drainage problems after a heavy rain.

That caused the ATU unit to be transferred to Franklin, VA in late 1943.

The airfield at Monogram was not depicted at all on the 1943 Regional Aeronautical Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) ,

which may have been due to wartime security concerns.

The earliest depiction which has been located of the Monogram airfield

was on a August 1943 Navy map (courtesy of Mark Hess) .

It depicted &ldquoMonogram Auxiliary Air Station&rdquo as an irregularly-shaped property.

According to Mark Hess, the Civil Air Patrol Tow Target Unit #21 was based at Monogram from 1943-44.

The earliest aeronautical chart depiction which has been located of the Monogram airfield

was on the September 1944 Norfolk Sectional Chart (courtesy of Ron Plante).

A WW2-era National Archives view looking west at Monogram NAAS.

The grass runways are on the left, and the paved catapult runway is on the right.

Monogram had 4 sod runways, ranging in length from 3,900' to 4,500'.

A ramp on the west side of the field had a single 111' x 58' hangar, with a control tower along one corner of the hangar.

The barracks at Monogram could accommodate a total of 230 personnel.

Monogram operated 2 aircraft for liaison purposes (a GH Howard, NE Piper, or SNJ Texan).

Monogram also provided crash crews & work parties for the nearby NOLF Suffolk.

Due to Monogram's grass runways, it was the designated landing field for all Navy aircraft in the Norfolk area

with hung bombs or those which had to perform a wheels-up landing.

The Civil Air Patrol operated from Monogram from late 1943 - middle 1944.

The grass runways at Monogram were finally upgraded in 1944,

when the Seabees installed a catapult & arresting system (with a 1,500' paved runway) on the north side of the grass runways.

A 3/18/45 aerial view looking north from the 1945 AAF Airfield Directory (courtesy of Scott Murdock)

depicted at &ldquoMonogram NAAS&rdquo as having several runways.

The directory described Monogram as a 616 acre irregularly-shaped property

having 4 sod runways, with the longest being a 4,500' NNE/SSW strip.

The field was said to have a single 111' x 58' wood hangar, to be owned by the U.S. Government, and operated by the Navy.

The Navy began conducting night Field Carrier Landing Practice at Monogram in March 1945.

Monogram was closed by the Navy on 12/1/45.

The Monogram property was labeled &ldquoUS Naval Installation&rdquo on the 1949 USGS topo map, but the airfield itself was not depicted.

An 11/1/50 USGS aerial view showed the remains Monogram NOLF's catapult runway on the northeast part of the site,

and the cleared area of the former grass runways to the southwest.

The last aeronautical chart depiction which has been located of the Monogram airfield was on the August 1952 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

It depicted Monogram as having an 1,800' paved runway, but strangely it did not indicate any military afiliation.

Monogram was no longer depicted at all (even as an abandoned airfield) on the January 1953 Norfolk Sectional Chart.

According to Tim Tyler, NAVCOMMSTA Norfolk's Naval Radio Transmitting Facility Driver was built on the grounds of the former NAAS Monogram.

The Driver facility provided radio transmitting facilities & services to support Naval ships, submarines, and aircraft.

By 1992 the site contained many HF antennas, some LF antennas, and some old buildings left over from the NAAS days.

The communications facility was shut down in 1994.

In the 1994 USGS aerial photo the remains Monogram NOLF's catapult runway could still be barely perceived stretching from center of photo to top-right.

The longest remaining runway segment was 1,500' long.

According to Tim Tyler, the 248 acres were turned over to City of Suffolk in July 2001 to be developed into a park.

Driver resident Janet Gibbons reported in 2004 that the site of the Monogram airfield has not yet been made into a park,

"but it has several housing developments sprouting up around it & will probably be a park someday."

A circa 2005-2006 aerial view looking north at the remains of the catapult runway at Monogram.

A 2015 aerial photo showed the characteristic outline of the Monogram NOLF catapult runway could still be recognized on the northeast part of the airfield site.

Tim Tyler reported in 2020, &ldquoAt least parts of the main building [the Navy Driver radio facility] remain, albeit heavily damaged by natural human elements in what's now an overgrown area.

The City has planned on making it into a parkland or specifically a sports park for over 20 years that I've been occasionally checking on the old site,

but those decades-old magnificent plans haven't become reality.&rdquo

Thanks to Tim Tyler for pointing out this airfield.

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DPRK Targeting Researchers II: .Sys Payload and Registry Hunting

In an earlier post, this blog examined malware from a DPRK-affiliated campaign targeting security researchers. Since the initial public post about this activity from Google, multiple vendors have corroborated and supplemented the technical details in this attack.

Whereas the previous post examined a DLL file delivered via social engineering and VisualStudio, this post examines the inner-workings of a malicious .sys file likely delivered through a watering hole. In addition to reverse engineering, this post offers possible threat hunting avenues for identifying data associated with this file hidden in the registry of a compromised system.

For those purely interested in the hunting portion of this post (the malware reads, and likely executes, data from the registry), click here to skip ahead. As a disclaimer, the hunt workflow proposed is merely hypothetical, and should not be considered any sort of official security guidance.

(2/1 Update, Stage 2 can be found here)

Technical Analysis

Filename: helpsvc.sys
MD5: ae17ce1eb59dd82f38efb9666f279044
SHA1: 3b3acb4a55ba8e2da36223ae59ed420f856b0aaf
SHA256: a4fb20b15efd72f983f0fb3325c0352d8a266a69bb5f6ca2eba0556c3e00bd15

Examining this file in IDA reveals that this file is a DLL likely intended to run as a service, given one of its exports (ServiceMain) and several of its imports (RegisterServiceCtrlHandlerW, SetServiceStatus). There are a few routes available for debugging a file like this- ultimately, I settled on the following steps:

1) Edit the first two bytes of ServiceMain to EB FE, creating a loop that allows us to attack, resume, and debug it
2) Modify a previous service-installing PowerShell script from a different DPRK adversary
3) Run PSExec with system-level permissions
4) Use PSExec to run x64dbg, giving it the permissions needed to step into the running service and begin debugging

The PowerShell script was selected for simplicity in short, previous research showed that it can be used to install a DLL as a service. This current task requires that a DLL be installed as a service. Thus, it did the job of handling the appropriate registry modifications.

Modified script to install the driver. Note that the .cfg and .dat files are not needed. For simplicity, during this analysis I created dummy files in their place to save time rather than removing them altogether, as they do not affect the script’s overall execution.

This PowerShell script will start a new copy of svchost, which in turn runs this new service. The PowerShell script will also indicate that it is waiting for the service to start this is expected, as several key routines within the malware occur before the ServiceStatus is set.

By stepping into the svchost process, resuming this process, and selecting the correct running thread, we can place a breakpoint on the infinite loop and re-patch the malware to the original instructions.

Double click the RIP to reach the infinite loop and set a breakpoint. Right click -> Binary -> Edit

Once this patch is in place, the malware will resume its expected behavior. First, the malware steps into a function and begins placing data in memory in a similar fashion as the previously analyzed DLL. In this instance, the malware decrypts three values:

– SubVersion
– Description
– SoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionKernelConfig

This third value is a registry entry. The malware attempts to open this value under HKLM however, this value does not exist, and the malware does not create it. This strongly suggests another mechanism, such as code launched via browser exploit or another dropper, places this data in the registry.

If the malware does open this key, it attempts to read data within values named SubVersion and Description (the two other decrypted strings). For the purposes of continuing the analysis, I created this registry key and these two entries, with dummy values in each location. The values chosen were random, which led to some trial and error to determine their possible purpose.

The RegQueryValue call takes in a handle (78) to a previously opened key and reads the data stored from this key into memory.

After some attempts, it seemed that anything longer than four bytes in the SubVersion entry led to an error during the malware’s execution. Specifically, the malware returned 0xEA and gracefully terminated. In addition, the malware seemed to hit an exception when tested with exactly four bytes. I picked a random two-byte value to allow it to proceed.

For the Description entry, I used human-readable sentences and words to make them easier to track.

Contents of the Description key created to allow the malware to proceed.

After reading the Description value, it begins transforming this data through a loop however, the number of repetitions of the loop is not dependent on the length of the Description data. Instead, the malware uses a value that appears to be [10 in hex, 16 in decimal] fewer than the value stored in the SubVersion registry key. In addition, the malware truncates 16 hex characters off of the start of the data being transformed.

After this transformation, the malware steps into a function that checks for the presence of a PE header (MZ) and allocates memory. This function also contains a call to a dynamic API resolution routine similar to the previously examined DLL associated with this campaign unfortunately, neither of these routines could be properly examined during this analysis (likely due to the lack of a proper expected payload or other similar factors).

Following these function calls, the malware starts the service.

After publication, an analyst who wished to remain anonymous pointed me to a copy of the missing registry data. I left the previous writing intact, as the analytic method may prove useful to future readers. Below contains some brief technical analysis of the payload decrypted from the registry.

Name: KernelConfig Registry data (approx. 2mb)
MD5 7904d5ee5700c126432a0b4dab2776c9
SHA1 79bd808e03ed03821b6d72dd8246995eb893de70
SHA256 7c4ea495f9145bd9bdc3f9f084053a63a76061992ce16254f68e88147323a8ef

This file can be given a .reg extension, which will import the data into the device’s registry. With this data in place, the malware properly continues its routine and decrypts and runs an executable payload.

Unlike the DLL analyzed in a previous post that functioned as a downloader, this file has a wide range of additional features. This second-stage file begins by dynamically resolving a very large list of APIs from Windows libraries such as kernel32, advapi, ntdll, userenv, and others. The malware then:

– Performs a startup check
– Communicates with the C2 server (using the OpenSSL library)
– Uses a Case-Switch workflow to carry out commands

The startup check (and other routines within the malware) use the same in-memory decoding routine to decrypt hidden strings containing important values for the malware’s execution. In this case, the malware can use this routine to decode three C2 servers for communication. In addition, it can write to and read data from the a key located at HKLMSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionDriverConfig.

After this, the malware will contact a C2 server. The decoded C2s for this sample are:

hxxp: // www.colasprint[.]com/_vti_log/upload.asp
hxxps: // www.dronerc[.]it/forum/uploads/index.php
hxxps: // www.fabioluciani[.]com/es/include/include.asp

C2 Workflow

The malware supports a wide range of commands and actions. Some of the highlights are:

– Writing files to the disk and executing them
– Collecting network adapter information
– Enumerating running processes and there start times
– Collecting drive and file info
– Enumerating items in a directory
– Creating a process
– Terminating a process
– Performing a screen capture

Screen capture code

Based on these commands, the tool is likely used to conduct reconnaissance and potentially to triage a device before taking further steps in the environment.

Hunting Possibilities

When looking for malware like this on a device or across a network, an initial instinct might be to search for known malicious registry key values. At the time of this writing, the only known registry entries for this malware are the ones described above at KernelConfig however, the attackers could easily change this (or could have deployed malware that uses different values against targets that have yet to identify the infection).

From a defensive perspective, however, two things work in our favor:

– Registry key values are usually small
– Code needed to execute a malicious workflow is usually larger than a registry key

Given these two facts, one option is to examine the registry for any uncharacteristically large values. As this post will shortly show, this is merely a starting point for hunting however, it’s an effective one.

As an experiment, I pulled malware samples from previous (unrelated) adversary activity. An uncompressed meterpreter shell took up just under 1 kb (1,000 bytes). A compressed version took up approximately 300 bytes. I consider these to be a reasonable estimate for the lower-bounds of an executable payload size that an attacker would use.

I then modified an open-source PowerShell script to enumerate the every key and value in the CurrentVersion location of HKLM. In a real scenario, I would likely try this against the entire registry.

This produces a CSV file of approximately 194,000 values (I used the upside down question mark as a delimiter and edited out excess commas and quotation marks) with the key path, key name, and length of the data. In theory, sorting these by the largest keys should show outliers. I used the following Python code:

Out of 194,000 entries within the CurrentVersion section of the HKLM hive:

– A 100KB payload such as the one analyzed in the previous post would easily top the list
– A 1KB uncompressed meterpreter shell would also top the list
– A 300 byte compressed meterpreter shell would be harder to identify, ranking right around the top 100

As mentioned above, this is just a starting point. Additions to this workflow, such as generating the last modified time of the registry key, would likely greatly improve this workflow. Parsing the data for character entropy would also likely improve the accuracy. Even without these two changes, however, a malicious payload stored in a registry value would easily rank in the top 99% of values.

Update 2/1/2021: Analysis of the proper, adversary-intended KernelConfig value shows that the registry data is approximately 2mb. Registry data of this size would likely rank at the top of any registry dump in this proposed workflow.


NORFOLK STHN CORP. DL 1 (NFS.MU)

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Contents

The first major U.S. warship built after the construction boom of World War II, Norfolk was designed beginning in 1946 under project SCB 1 and authorized in 1947 as CLK-1, an anti-submarine hunter killer ship which could operate under all weather conditions and would carry the latest radar, sonar, and other electronic devices. She was designed on a light cruiser hull so she could carry a greater variety of detection gear than a destroyer. ΐ]

She was laid down 1 September 1949 by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey, launched 29 December 1951 with the destroyer leader reclassification DL-1, sponsored by Miss Betty King Duckworth, and commissioned 4 March 1953, Capt. Clarence Matheson Bowley in command.

After her Caribbean shakedown cruise (February 1954), Norfolk was assigned to the U.S. Atlantic Fleet and between 1955 and 1957 served successively as flagship for Commander Destroyer Flotillas 2, 4, and 6. During 1956 and 1957 she acted as flagship for Commander Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet. In June 1957, Norfolk participated in the International Fleet Review as flagship for Admiral Jerauld Wright, Commander-in-Chief Atlantic Fleet and Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic for NATO.

A boiler on the ship blew up in later 1955.

By 1959 Norfolk ' s eight 3 inch/50 caliber guns had been replaced by eight 3"/70 caliber guns and her 20 mm. battery had been removed. In 1960 the addition of an ASROC launcher enhanced her antisubmarine capabilities.

On 10 May 1960, an 83-foot Cuban vessel harassed Norfolk while she was patrolling the Florida Straits with The Sullivans in Cuban waters.

In Fall 1961 she took part in UNITAS II as flagship for Commander Cruiser Destroyer Flotilla 2. During the operation she performed ASW training exercises with the navies of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. Norfolk repeated this cruise over the next five years during which she served as flagship of Commander South Atlantic Forces except in 1962 when she was flagship for Commander Cruiser Destroyer Forces Atlantic Fleet.

In 1965 she was the flagship for UNITAS VI.

Norfolk joined LANTFLEX 66 as flagship between 28 November and 16 December 1966. During this exercise she shadowed the Russian trawlers Repiter and Teodilit. She proved her antisubmarine capabilities again as flagship for Commander South Atlantic Forces during UNITAS VIII in Fall 1967.

Norfolk was assigned to Commander Middle East Force as flagship (17 April–15 October 1968). On this mission she visited Bahrain, French Somaliland, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia. Kenya, the Seychelles, Mauritius, Malagasy Republic, India, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, Tahiti, Mexico, and Panama Canal Zone.

In October 1968 Norfolk returned to Norfolk where she decommissioned 15 January 1970 and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. By 1 September 1974, Norfolk was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register and sold for scrap. Α]


Old Norfolk County Chesapeake Rich In Black History

Dr. E. Curtis Alexander, local author, educator, and historian for half a century, has been slowly piecing together the many pieces of the history in Old Norfolk County.
Black families, like his, recorded and contributed to the civic, political, military, educational and religious history of that area from the days of the Revolution. Many free Black families who lived in areas of the Cuffeytown section of the county paid taxes at the time of the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.

In 1963, Norfolk County and the city of South Norfolk merged creating the city of Chesapeake. Portions of Norfolk County were annexed into Norfolk or Portsmouth, Suffolk and Princess Anne County. These included Titustown in Norfolk, and Kempsville in Virginia Beach, according to Alexander.
Dr. Alexander, the Curator of the Bells Mills Historical Research and Restoration Society, Inc. in Chesapeake, along with state and local persons such as State Senator Kenneth Alexander, Chesapeake Sheriff Jim O’Sullivan and past governors, have recognized a long and distinguished list of sacred and hallowed historical sites around the region, especially in Chesapeake or old Norfolk County.

The theme for the 2016 edition of Black History Month (BHM)) is “Hallowed Grounds: Sites of African-American Memories.”
“Many of the hallowed grounds in Chesapeake are basically unknown to the citizenry, both Black and White,” said Alexander. “So the theme is most appropriate for 2016, nationally. But we have been doing it for over 20 years. We can back it up with actual research for existing sites and those which are long gone with historic markers.”

For instance, the Dismal Swamp which includes Chesapeake is part of the legacy of Nat Turner of Southampton County in the minds of historians, because it has a link to the Civil War and the United States Colored Troops (USCT).
Alexander said the digging of the swamp’s waterway was one of the greatest examples of “slave-eneering” – forced Black labor created one of the greatest engineering feats in the United States.

The Great Dismal Swamp was a vital waterway of travel during the nation’s early days. There was a toll road and the house of the project’s Superintendent still stands off Dominion Blvd. in Chesapeake.
Oak Grove United Methodist Church, which has a mainly White congregation, is located at the intersection of Great Bridge and Battlefield Boulevards, which once was called the Great Roads into Currituck County, North Carolina.
The African Brigade, under the command of Brigadier General Edward A. Wilde and formed after the Emancipation Proclamation, allowed Blacks to serve in the Union Army during the Civil War.

It was split into two columns and were dispatched to pacify all of Northeastern North Carolina. At one point in December of 1863, Column One of the Brigade encamped on the way to North Carolina at the Superintendent’s house in Dismal Swamp.
At the same time, Column 2 encamped at Oak Grove. Eventually the two units marched to Northeast Carolina and helped free over 3,000 Black slaves at plantations in seven counties. The freed slaves settled at Roanoke Island.

Others joined the African Brigade, including Cuffeytown natives Private Dempsey Smith and Walter Smith, who still have hundreds of descendants living in the area to this day.
Freed Black troops marched and fought to show they deserved freedom, and they fought to free other Blacks who were enslaved.
Today, thanks to Dr. Alexander and the Bells Mills group, many of the sites which no longer exist are recognized with historic markers sponsored by funds collected by the organization.

Civil War Trail Marker

At the Naval Support Activity Norfolk-Northwest Annex in Chesapeake sits the Bethel Baptist Church Cemetery. An Afro Union Civil War Trail Marker was placed on the east side of the base’s chapel to commemorate seven Black heroes who fought and died during the Civil War.

Corprew Family Memorial Cemetery

The Sergeant March Corprew Family Memorial Cemetery on Bells Mills Road, according to Alexander, is the oldest active cemetery in Chesapeake that was established in the 19th century by an Afro-Virginia Union Army Civil War veteran.
Sergeant Corprew served in Company I, 2nd Regiment USCT from 1863 to 1866. The company fought in the battles of Suffolk, Petersburg and Chaffin Farm/New Market Heights and in Texas.

Located there are memorial markers for USCT “Unknown and Known Afro-Union” Civil War Soldiers Memorial. Those buried at the site were residents of Norfolk County at 1001 Bells Mills Road.
Among the 12 markers are two for Medal of Honor recipients Sergeant James Miles and Littleton Owens from Princess Anne County. Owens served two terms in the Virginia House of Delegates.
Jeremiah Locker Street in the Bells Mills area is the only public street in Virginia renamed for USCT member. Private Locker, who served in Company F of the USCT.

Cuffeytown Historic Cemetery

The Cuffeytown Historic Cemetery in Chesapeake is the oldest repository of Afro-Virginia Union Army Civil War Veterans buried in a non-government-sponsored site. The famous Cuffeytown 13 are buried at the site. They were volunteers of mostly Free-born Blacks who served in the Union Army and fought various battles during the Civil War, including Suffolk and Petersburg.

Churches and Schools

Norfolk County saw the creation of churches and schools for Blacks before and after the Civil War. Since the area was controlled by Union soldiers during the war, starting in 1862, the freed Black communities were able to form the institutions without resistance from Union forces.
Alexander said the Cuffeytown section of Chesapeake is the oldest community of free born Africans in the Commonwealth and has a wealth of burial sites, churches, and schools built for and by Blacks.

The Gabriel Chapel AME Zion Church was built in 1866 in Norfolk County on the Cuffeytown section of the community. Divine Baptist Church, built in 1862, and Willow Grove Baptist Church in 1854 (about), have the distinction of being founded and pastored by Rev. Charles Hodges, who represented Norfolk County and Portsmouth in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1869-1871. That was the first year the body operated after the Civil War under the new Constitution.

According to Alexander, First Bethel AME Church was organized by slaves as a “bush church” in secret in 1855 to deter Whites from detecting it. It was the first church organized by slaves in Norfolk County area, at the foot of the old Steel Bridge on Cedar Road, near the Veterans Bridge. There is no historical marker for it.

The Cuffeytown School for Colored Children was built 1865 at the intersection of Long Ridge Road and Land of Promise Road. It was later replaced by the Long Ridge School for Colored Children. A marker designating the school stands near Long Ridge Park.
The Bells Mills School For Colored Children built in 1923 was opened on land provided by Sergeant March Corprew, a co-founder of the community of Bells Mills.

In two rooms, it provided education from first to 7th grades with two rooms. The Bells Mills School League, the Rosenwald Fund and the Virginia Commonwealth, funded the school.


NORFOLK STHN CORP. DL 1 (NFS.BE)

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