Francis Gary Powers Makes Final Plea Before Moscow Court

Francis Gary Powers Makes Final Plea Before Moscow Court


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Radio Moscow broadcasts the confession of captured American U-2 spy plane pilot Francis Gary Powers, who had been shot down over central Russia on May 1, 1960, and arrested by Soviet authorities.


When the U-2 Fell to Earth

In the 1950s, the Soviet Union loomed as a dangerous competing superpower, able to orbit satellites, brandish nuclear weapons, and possibly lead the world in development of intercontinental bombers and ballistic missiles. Despite furtive attempts to gain information through informants and spies, the United States had virtually no insight into Soviet capabilities or intentions, hidden as they were behind the Iron Curtain.

The perceived nuclear threat affected US security as never before. At the highest levels in the government, it was agreed desperate measures, even if internationally illegal, were necessary to gain information. Top US officials decided to use a small band of pilots flying the very advanced Lockheed U-2 aircraft as the point of the reconnaissance spear. At risk to their lives, pilots would break international law by flying over the Soviet Union. Their mission was to gather information deemed absolutely vital by no less a personage than President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

The most famous of these pilots, Francis Gary Powers, became a hero of the first magnitude for his work before he was brought down over the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960, 50 years ago next month. However, Powers was never treated as a hero until after his death, when he was given belated recognition for his accomplishments.

The route Gary Powers took over the Soviet Union on the fateful 1960 flight. The red X marks the shootdown location, and the continuing dotted line is the intended flight path.

An Offer USAF Couldn’t Refuse

The reconnaissance program Powers and his colleagues served was known by various names, but is usually referred to by its CIA cryptonym Aquatone. Its goal was to create an aircraft that could fly over the Soviet Union at altitudes beyond the reach of interceptors.

Soviet surface-to-air missile capability was not yet seen as a threat. The new aircraft was to be equipped with revolutionary cameras and sensors, so a maximum amount of information could be obtained during the surreptitious overflights of Soviet territory. The goal was for the aircraft to fly high enough to elude strong Soviet radars. The Air Force was already overflying the USSR in the SENSINT program, but Eisenhower wanted to minimize the use of military aircraft—for such flights could be construed as an act of war.

Only “civilian pilots” would fly in Aquatone. The plan was that, should one be shot down, Washington would describe the flight as a weather-reconnaissance or nuclear-dust-gathering sortie.

The government organizations involved in the birth of the program reached from the White House down to the Pentagon, CIA, and many other agencies. Eisenhower directed the CIA to manage the program and USAF to provide the infrastructure, training, logistics, and pilots.

The US previously obtained information on the Soviet Union with modified versions of standard aircraft, but none had the altitude capability to elude the latest series of Soviet fighters or the imminent threat of SAMs.

The U-2 came about through the audacity and genius of Clarence L. “Kelly” Johnson, who led the famous Lockheed Skunk Works. Johnson was aware that a special team of Air Force advocates had created a requirement for a long-range, high-altitude aircraft to overfly the Soviet Union. It did not disturb Johnson that Lockheed was not invited to the official 1954 USAF competition for this aircraft.

The manufacturers of cameras, lenses, films, sensors, and other vital equipment literally forced quantum leaps in technology to create the mission aircraft. Its designers deliberately sacrificed strength for weight savings to achieve the necessary altitude and range capability.

Johnson’s personality and reputation prevailed when he made an offer the Air Force could not refuse: Six aircraft and their flight test and support for $22 million. The first aircraft was promised for delivery within eight months, with an operational airplane to be ready within 15 months.

Johnson knew every pound of aircraft reduced range and altitude. He had the Skunk Works shave weight from the structure, making important compromises on both safety and comfort. These included using extremely thin aluminum skin panels, omitting an ejection seat, not pressurizing the cockpit, and creating a unique bicycle-style single main wheel and tail wheel. Droppable outrigger wheels were used for takeoff and wingtip skids for landing. The glider-like aircraft first flew in August 1955.

Powers pictured with a U-2, wearing the pressure suit required for its pilots. (AP photo)

Free from the usual requirements of a development program, the Aquatone team complemented Lockheed’s design and production by creating a secret base in the Nevada desert for test and training. It was called “The Ranch” and was a direct predecessor of “Area 51” lore.

The Aquatone team also established the necessary agreements with sometimes reluctant foreign governments for overseas bases. Pilots were handpicked by a USAF team and subjected to a rigorous physical and psychological screening process similar to one used later by the astronaut program.

Francis Gary Powers was born Aug. 17, 1929. Known as Frank to his friends, he was an aviation cadet and was selected for fighter training before joining Strategic Air Command’s 468th Strategic Fighter Squadron at Turner AFB, Ga. There he did so well he was chosen to fly in gunnery competitions.

He began his work for the CIA in 1956, a member of a small group of highly qualified USAF pilots. They volunteered to undertake a mission about which they knew nothing except it was very dangerous.

Powers and his fellow volunteers made tough decisions to participate in Aquatone, resigning their Air Force commissions with the private assurance they could be reinstated with no loss of rank or seniority. They accepted long-term commitments to be away from home and that they could not tell family what they were doing or where they were going.

The irresistible lure for many of the U-2 pilots was the opportunity to fly a brand-new airplane that had spectacular performance but was laden with hazard. Powers and his colleagues soon learned they were to fly this untried and admittedly dangerous aircraft on long, nerve-wracking missions, some over hostile territory.

The first U-2 overflight over hostile territory took place on June 20, 1956 when Carl Overstreet flew from Wiesbaden, Germany, over Czechoslovakia and Poland. On July 4, the second overflight reached Leningrad. The Russian radar immediately tracked both aircraft, rendering useless the flimsy cover stories that the U-2s were conducting weather reconnaissance and atmospheric sampling. Every succeeding overflight was also detected by the Soviet Union, which issued private protests to the United States.

Unwilling to admit it could not prevent the intrusions over its country, the Soviet leadership fumed for the nearly four years following Overstreet’s mission. Soviet aircraft and missile designers were driven hard to come up with a means to counter the U-2. While no adequate fighter was developed, Petr Grushin at the Lavochkin design bureau led the creation of what became known as the SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile system. It was rapidly deployed, even though it had many operational problems and demanded expert attention for its effective use.

Nikita Khrushchev examines the U-2 wreckage in a propaganda photo taken shortly after Powers was captured. (CIA photo)

One Too Many

The CIA and Lockheed concluded early in the program it would be only one or two years before the Soviet Union produced interceptors and missiles able to shoot the U-2 down.

Powers performed well as both a pilot and navigator. While he originally thought he might undertake the new assignment for a year or two, he, like several of his colleagues, continued to volunteer, year after year, despite the demands, the primitive living conditions at forward bases, and the secrecy of their operations.

Powers was initially assigned to fly out of Incirlik AB, Turkey. He made his first official mission in September 1956, conducting electronic surveillance along the southern border of the Soviet Union. Powers flew many similar missions, careful not to accidentally penetrate the Soviet border. It was exacting work, for the pilot had to navigate by taking fixes using the radio compass.

In one of Powers’ early missions, he documented the presence of French and British warships preparing for their aborted invasion of Egypt in the fall of 1956.

In November 1956, Powers became the first U-2 pilot based in Turkey to conduct an overflight of the Soviet Union. The daring series of overflights brought back conclusive evidence the Soviet Union was shifting its emphasis from bombers to intercontinental ballistic missiles—information of the greatest importance to the United States.

For all of the U-2 pilots, each of the overflights was filled with tension. There was no way of knowing when the Soviets would acquire the weapon needed to shoot them down. As the fourth year of operation approached, concern rose that a U-2 might be lost at any time. Despite this, the CIA failed to prepare an adequate cover story for any captured pilot. The precautions it did take were haphazard and illusory. A small explosive device for destroying some of the vital equipment on board was installed, and pilots were offered the option of carrying a cyanide pill, or later, a curare-dipped needle.

Curiously, what should have been the most daunting aspect of the mission was also the most appealing—the inherent danger of flying a new aircraft on hazardous missions. The U-2 was continually improved, with an ejection seat being retrofitted in 1957.

The danger was real, since by 1958 no less than nine aircraft had been lost in accidents. The causes varied, but the U-2 was so fragile that in one case the jet wash from “buzzing” fighters was sufficient to break it up.

Powers continued to serve, although beset by familial concerns and his own certain knowledge that the law of averages would catch up. As safety officer for his U-2 detachment, he was very aware of the many U-2 accidents involving everything from electrical power failure to fuel lines.

The Soviets were detecting the U-2s early in their flight path, and an advanced Soviet missile—later known to be an SA-2—was fired at a U-2 over the Siberian coast in 1960. Nonetheless, the CIA obtained approval from President Eisenhower for one more overflight.

It proved to be one too many.

Powers was selected for the flight in the U-2 designated Article 360, which had previously run out of fuel on a mission and been damaged in a belly landing. After a delay waiting for final authorization, he took off early in the morning from Peshawar, Pakistan. His route was to take him across Afghanistan to enter the Soviet Union, then north by northeast to Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk, west to Kirov, northwest to Murmansk, around the Scandinavian peninsula, and finally landing in Norway.

Flying at about 70,000 feet, 1,300 miles into the Soviet Union, the U-2’s autopilot failed, and Powers made a decision to continue the flight using manual controls—a very demanding task.

With every one of these U-2 missions, the Soviet air defenses were also finding things extremely taxing. From Premier Nikita Khrushchev down, the entire Soviet Union wanted the intruder caught. All air traffic in the Soviet Union was shut down—the U-2’s destruction was demanded.

About four hours into the flight, the Soviet efforts paid off when a single SA-2 detonated near enough to the U-2 to blow its tail off. Powers was aware of a huge orange light followed by a violent tumbling as his aircraft soon shook itself apart.

Gary Powers (r) sits in the dock of the court in Moscow at the start of his August 1960 trial for espionage against the Soviet Union. (AP photo)

Thrown about the cockpit, Powers was unable to get himself in position to eject. The aircraft had lost half of his altitude when he was finally able to push himself clear of the cockpit to bail out.

Powers was captured as soon as he landed. He was immediately rushed to Moscow.

When Powers became unquestionably overdue, consternation broke out in the United States. CIA Director Allen W. Dulles and Deputy Director of Plans Richard M. Bissell Jr. had assured Eisenhower that no U-2 pilot could survive a shootdown at the design altitude of 70,000 feet.

Cold War politics accelerated after his capture. Khrushchev dumbfounded Washington on May 7 by announcing he had evidence from the airplane and a live pilot.

Khrushchev then embarrassed Eisenhower at a May 1960 summit meeting in Paris. He presented an ultimatum concerning Powers’ flight, stating the Soviets would leave the summit unless Eisenhower condemned the flight as provocative, guaranteed there would be no future flights, and punished the individuals responsible for the operation. Eisenhower agreed only that there would be no future flights, and the summit broke up with Khrushchev convinced he had won a major propaganda coup.

Powers withstood intensive Soviet interrogations in the infamous Lubyanka prison. His trial was a sham, with Roman A. Rudenko, notorious for his role in the purging of Stalin’s enemies, as prosecutor.

Inevitably found guilty, Powers was spared the death penalty as a gesture of Soviet “humaneness” but sentenced to a three-year term in the cruel Russian prison system, followed by seven years at hard labor. He then had an 18-month sojourn in filthy Russian prisons in Moscow and Vladimir, enduring a primitive diet and living conditions.

Powers gave away only information he knew to be available already to the Soviets. Ironically, on Aug. 19, 1960, the day the Soviets convicted Powers and sentenced him to prison, the first Corona film capsule was recovered near Hawaii, thus permitting satellite reconnaissance overflight of the USSR to continue from outer space.

Powers, just hours after his return to the United States in February 1962.

A Sour Homecoming

After much negotiation, Powers was returned to his country in February 1962 in a spy exchange for Col. Rudolph Abel.

By all rights, Powers deserved to be decorated at the White House—he had earned the honors. His many previous overflights had gathered incredibly important information, and he had shown his steadfast heroism in withstanding the torments of the Soviet system. Instead, he was badly treated by the government for which he had risked life and freedom.

Powers resented that, upon his return, he was smeared by a rash of ill-founded commentary. Writers and commentators complained righteously that Powers had not blown up his aircraft, not committed suicide, and even that he had managed to survive the Soviet imprisonment.

Far worse were the official positions taken by the very men who had backed the program, especially the CIA. The pilot had obeyed his orders exactly and defended himself and his country ably while on trial.

The CIA failed to support him publicly or provide an adequate cover story for an event they knew was inevitable—a downed U-2.

Despite his treatment, Powers remained convinced he had done the right thing. Championed by Kelly Johnson, he worked as a test pilot at Lockheed for seven years, and then became a helicopter pilot broadcasting traffic updates in Los Angeles.

Powers died on Aug. 1, 1977 when his helicopter crashed after it ran out of fuel. He was 47.

On the 40th anniversary of his U-2 flight, a ceremony was held at Beale AFB, Calif.—still the home for U-2 operations. Powers’ record was praised and his family received several posthumous awards: The Air Force awarded him the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Prisoner of War Medal, and the National Defense Service Medal, while the CIA, then headed by Director George J. Tenet, awarded him the Director’s Medal.

The commander of the 9th Reconnaissance Wing, then-Brig. Gen. Kevin P. Chilton, said, “The mind still boggles at what we asked this gentleman and his teammates to do back in the late 1950s—to literally fly over downtown Moscow, alone, unarmed, and unafraid.”


Why Lie Detector Tests Can’t Be Trusted

Francis Gary Powers had his first polygraph experience right after signing up as a pilot for the CIA’s U-2 program in January 1956. In his memoir, Powers described being called into a room where he was confronted with the question,

“Any objection to taking a lie detector test?” Though I had a great many, I didn’t voice them, shaking my head. If this was a condition of the job, I’d do it. But I didn’t like it. … I had never felt so completely exposed, as if there was no privacy whatsoever. If at that moment someone had handed me a petition banning polygraphs forever from the face of the earth, I would gladly have signed it. When I was asked the last question and the straps were taken off, I vowed that never again, no matter what the circumstances, would I undergo such an insult to my integrity.”

Yet Powers would later take another polygraph test, with even higher stakes.

Powers’ case would be an uncommon one, but the polygraph was considered an essential tool in that period, for reasons that had little to do with getting to the truth. The polygraph was more of an attempted answer to a central Cold War conundrum: How could Americans fulfill their pledges to oppose an allegedly totalitarian enemy without becoming totalitarian themselves?

To square this particular circle, federal agencies, first and foremost the CIA, began using a controversial technology developed by psychologists in the early 20th century, and then refined and applied by the police and private businesses since the 1920s. Polygraph measurements—derived from changes in blood pressure, breathing depth, and skin conductivity of an electric current—have never been proved to be reliable indicators of deception. Not only is genuine emotional turmoil hard to reproduce in laboratory studies, but such emotional responses are not uniform among humans and can be imitated by countermeasures (such as pinching yourself before giving a response). In large screening tests, significant numbers of “false positives” (innocent people being labeled deceptive) are unavoidable.

In addition, the question of whether deception during a polygraph test indicates a person is unsuitable for employment transcends merely technical issues. In the final analysis, American security agencies never arrived at a definition of what personal characteristics a model employee should have. Instead, the polygraph provided reasons for dismissing a person as a security risk or denying him or her employment.

Leonarde Keeler was the first American to receive a patent for a polygraph. His patent, granted on January 13, 1931, described the machine as an "apparatus for recording arterial blood pressure." (U.S. Patent 1,788,434)

Bureaucratic usefulness, rather than any scientific validity, goes a long way toward explaining why the polygraph became a standard instrument of the American national security state. The case of Powers and his history with polygraphs is instructive.

From 1956 to 1960, 24 U-2 flights over the USSR yielded invaluable strategic intelligence on Soviet military capabilities. But on May 1, 1960, disaster struck when Powers’ plane was shot down over Sverdlovsk (today called Yekaterinburg). American authorities issued a cover story about a weather balloon gone astray and were caught flat-footed when Nikita Khrushchev presented to the world the remnants of the plane, and then the pilot himself. Powers had miraculously survived and was subsequently put on trial in Moscow and sentenced to 10 years in prison for espionage. In February 1962, he was exchanged for Soviet KGB colonel Vilyam Fisher (alias Rudolf Ivanovich Abel).

Powers returned home a hero under suspicion. Unbeknownst to him and the American public, doubts about his truthfulness arose due to National Security Agency intercepts of Soviet responses to the U-2 flights. Tracked radar signals indicated that Powers’ plane had dropped below its regular altitude of 65,000 feet, making it vulnerable to surface-to-air missile attacks. But Powers vehemently denied that he had allowed the plane to decline. The CIA, fearing for its then-stellar reputation with the American public, insisted on Powers’ innocence as well.

CIA director John McCone set up a board of inquiry under a federal judge, E. Barrett Prettyman, to prepare a statement for public consumption. The document highlighted that medical tests, a background check, and an interrogation had confirmed that Powers “appeared to be truthful, frank, straightforward. … He volunteered with some vehemence that, although he disliked the process of the polygraph, he would like to undergo a polygraph test. That test was subsequently duly administered by an expert. … [Powers] displayed no indications of deviation from the truth in the course of the examination.”

Contrast this with Powers’ own version of his treatment: Getting frustrated by “doubts about my responses, … I finally reacted angrily, bellowing: ‘If you don’t believe me, I’ll be glad to take a lie detector test!’ … Even before the words were out of my mouth, I regretted saying them. ‘Would you be willing to take a lie detector test on everything you have testified here?’ … I knew that I had been trapped.”

Francis Gary Powers holds a model of a U-2 spy plane as he testifies before the Senate Armed Services Committee. Powers' plane was shot down by the Soviets, and he was tried and convicted of spying in the USSR. (Bettmann/Getty Images)

Since shortly after its creation in 1947, the CIA has used the polygraph as part of its personnel security procedures to ascertain the truthfulness of job applicants and employees and to confirm the bona fides of agents. At the height of McCarthyism, utilizing a machine known by the public as a “lie detector” made sense, especially for a brand-new agency that had to be staffed quickly. To its proponents, the polygraph represented a promise of objectivity and fairness along with effective deterrence of spies and traitors. As a CIA inspector general report from 1963 emphasized, “We do not and could not aspire to total security. Our open society has an inherent resistance to police-state measures.”

When challenged by Congress, which investigated federal polygraph use repeatedly beginning in the mid-1960s, the CIA defended the polygraph aggressively. In 1980, the Director of Central Intelligence’s Security Committee insisted: “The utility of the polygraph interview as part of security processing has been demonstrated by empirical means. … These practical results, plus more than thirty years’ experience, make the use of the polygraph in security screening truly unique and indispensable.”

Yet internally, CIA bureaucrats admitted that the practice of sorting out job applicants and employees based on their test results was questionable at best. Even after decades of polygraph practice, the CIA could not define what exactly it meant by elusive terms such as “routine” and “voluntary” in its polygraph program. A 1974 list of questions from polygraph examiners to the general counsel included the following query: “What can a polygraph officer say in response to the question: ‘Do I have to take this test to get a job with the Agency?’ or ‘What happens if I don’t take the test?’” The relevance of the evidence produced during most polygraph tests was also unclear. “The precise yardstick for the measuring of security reliability of an individual continued to be elusive,” an internal CIA history on personnel security concluded in 1973.

Up until his death in a helicopter accident in 1977, Powers insisted that he had acted as a loyal American under trying circumstances. No definite account of the incident has been established yet. We also don’t know what data Powers’ polygraph test produced. However, it is reasonable to conclude that the Kennedy administration found it advisable to assure the public of Powers’ truthfulness, and that announcing that Powers had passed a polygraph test was part of their public relations strategy.

Powers’ experience highlights three ambiguous characteristics of polygraph use by the CIA for purposes of “national security.” First, the claim by polygraph proponents that the test could be a witness for the defense, exonerating loyal citizens, often turned out to be less than clear-cut. Second, while the polygraph relied on the rhetoric of voluntarism, in reality the pressure to take the test often mocked the idea of a free decision. Third, polygraph exams often served to provide official cover rather than revealing the truth of events.

Other questions haunted the polygraph throughout the Cold War, and the often-traumatic experience of the test provoked fierce protests from Americans across ideological lines. Journalists Joseph and Stewart Alsop, two otherwise unrelenting Cold War boosters, compared the polygraph to the embrace of an octopus whose “electric tentacles” produced an “overwhelming impulse to tell all … in order to appease the octopus machine.” Even former chief of CIA counterintelligence James Olson called polygraph exams “an awful but necessary ordeal. We all hate them. … A polygraph examination … is rude, intrusive, and sometimes humiliating. … It’s a grueling process.” Whether the sheer unpleasantness of the exam did more to deter potential traitors, or kept otherwise upstanding citizens from joining the agency, is impossible to determine.

Ultimately, there is the question of whether the polygraph ever caught Soviet spies. Certainly no major communist spy was ever caught by the machine, and the most damaging one, Aldrich Ames, passed two routine polygraph exams after he had delivered deadly information about U.S. activities in the Soviet Union to his handlers.

While the Ames case almost fatally damaged the polygraph’s reputation, the technology was rekindled in the wake of the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, because, once again, it gave the appearance of a scientific way to test such elusive values as loyalty when doing the inherently risky jobs of screening employees and counterintelligence work. As the history of the polygraph makes clear, American policy makers place great trust in technological fixes to thorny political problems—even though they themselves question those fixes privately.

John Baesler is a professor of history at Saginaw Valley State University and the author of Clearer Than Truth: The Polygraph and the American Cold War.


This Week in History: Aug 17-23, 2020

1859 – The first airmail flight takes off from Lafayette, Indiana, in a hot air balloon.

1903 – Journalist and publisher Joseph Pulitzer donates $1 million to Columbia University to begin the Pulitzer Prizes. The first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded in 1917 to Herbert Bayard Swope of the New York World newspaper for his articles entitled “Inside the German Empire” and the biography Julia Ward Howe by Laura E. Richards and Maude Howe Elliott. The New York Tribune received an award for an editorial on the first anniversary of the sinking of the Lusitania.

1945 – At the end of World War II North and South Korea are divided along the 38th parallel. The U.S. occupied the area south of the 38th parallel and the Soviet Union occupied the area north of the parallel.

1958 – The U.S. attempts to launch the world’s first Moon probe, Thor-Able, which fails when it explodes at T+77 seconds (77 seconds after takeoff).

1960 – The U-2 spy trial of downed American pilot Francis Gary Powers begins in Moscow. Powers pleaded guilty to espionage and was sentenced to three years in prison and seven years hard labor. He served 21 months and was exchanged for convicted KGB spy Rudolph Abel in February 1962, who served 4 years of his 45-year sentence. Watch a report including interviews with Powers.

1992 – Actor Woody Allen admits to being romantically involved with 21-year-old Soon-Yi Previn, the adopted daughter of Mia Farrow, who is Allen’s longtime companion. Allen and Previn were married in 1997 and are still married. Allen is now 84 and Previn is 49 years old.

1996 – Ross Perot is announced as the Reform Party’s first-ever presidential candidate. He garnered 19 percent of the popular vote in the November election. Perot died in 2019 at age 89.

1998 – President Bill Clinton admits in taped testimony that he had an “improper physical relationship” with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. He admitted before the nation that he “misled people” about his relationship with her. Watch Clinton’s public mea culpa.

2017 – The US-based Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) witnesses the first collision of two neutron stars.

1735 – The Boston Evening Post newspaper begins publishing in Boston, Massachusetts. It is among the oldest newspapers published in America. The last issue is published in April of 1775.

1872 – Aaron Montgomery Ward issues the first mail-order catalog from his Chicago-based company. It offered 163 products. In 1875, Ward announced his products come with “satisfaction guaranteed.” All Montgomery Ward stores were closed by 2001, but it was relaunched as an online business in 2004.

1914 – President Woodrow Wilson issues The “Proclamation of Neutrality.” Wilson declared that the U.S. would remain “impartial in thought as well as in action,” an attempt at keeping the U.S. out of World War I.

1920 – The 19th Amendment is ratified, giving women the right to vote. A women’s suffrage amendment was first introduced in the Senate in 1872 by Aaron Sargent (R-CA).

1956 – Elvis Presley’s double-sided record “Hound Dog” and “Don’t Be Cruel” reach #1 and #2 on the music charts and stay there for over a year.

1982 – The New York Stock Exchange passes the 100 million mark for the first time when 132.69 million shares are traded.

1997 – Beth Ann Hogan becomes the first female coed in the Virginia Military Institute’s 158-year history. Hogan dropped out of VMI in January 1998.

2000 – A Federal jury finds the EPA guilty of discrimination against Dr. Marsha Coleman-Adebayo, under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, later inspiring passage of the No FEAR Act. The No FEAR (Federal Antidiscrimination and Retaliation) Act is intended to reduce the incidence of workplace discrimination within the federal government by making agencies and departments more accountable.

2004 – Donald Trump re-releases his board game (TRUMP the Game) where players bid on real estate, buy big-ticket items, and make billion-dollar business deals. Watch the original 1989 commercial for the game featuring the future president.

1791 – Benjamin Banneker, born a free black in Maryland, publishes his first almanac. He published the Farmer’s Almanac from 1792 to 1797. He was a self-taught astronomer and mathematician.

1812 – The U.S. warship Constitution defeats the British warship Guerriere 400 miles southeast of the British base at Halifax, earning the nickname “Old Ironsides.”

1895 – American frontier murderer and outlaw John Wesley Hardin, age 42, is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas. Hardin claimed to have killed 42 men. He served 17 years of a 25-year sentence for one of the murders and obtained a law license after being released from prison in 1894.

1934 – The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio. The following year the race was moved to Akron because of the central location and hilly terrain. The Derby has run continuously except during World War II. Watch a short film about the first derby.

1940 – The new Civil Aeronautics Administration awards honorary license #1 to 68-year-old Orville Wright.

1984 – Ronald Reagan is nominated for president for a second term at the Republican National Convention in Houston, Texas. He was re-elected in November, winning 49 of the 50 states (all but Walter Mondale’s home state of Minnesota), and the most electoral votes in history (525).

2004 – Google Inc. stock begins selling on the Nasdaq Stock Market. The initial price is set at $85 and ends the day at $100.34 with more than 22 million shares traded. It is now selling for over $1,237 a share.

2011 – The West Memphis Three are released from prison after 18 years when they negotiate Alford plea deals. The Alford plea allows a defendant to admit the prosecution has enough evidence for a conviction without admitting guilt. In 2007, DNA evidence and jury misconduct accusations led to a retrial. Then teenagers Damien Echols, Jessie Misskelley, Jr., and Jason Baldwin were convicted in 1993 of murdering three 2nd grade students. No one else was ever arrested for the crime.

1619 – The first black slaves are brought by the Dutch to the colony of Jamestown, Virginia.

1866 – President Andrew Johnson formally declares that the Civil War is over.

1920 – The American Professional Football Association (APFC) forms when Jim Thorpe and six others meet in Canton, Ohio, to organize a professional football league. Thorpe served as its first president. Canton is the location of the Football Hall of Fame.

1964 – President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Economic Opportunity Act, a $1 billion anti-poverty measure.

1977 – NASA launches Voyager 2 toward the outer planets. It explored Jupiter in 1979, Saturn in 1981, Uranus in 1986, and Neptune in 1989. After 40 years, Voyager 2, one of the farthest man-made objects, is still in contact with the Deep Space Network.

1998 – The U.S. military launches cruise missile attacks against alleged al-Qaida camps in Afghanistan and a suspected chemical weapons plant in Sudan in retaliation for the August 7th bombings of the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. The attack instead destroyed the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum. The attack occurred during the President Clinton hearings on the Monica Lewinsky scandal.

2000 – Tiger Woods becomes the first golfer since Ben Hogan in 1953 to win three major golf tournaments in a calendar year after winning the PGA Championship,. He also won the U.S. Open and British Open.

1831 – The Nat Turner slave revolt kills 55 whites in Southampton County, Virginia. Nat Turner and 55 of his conspirators are captured and executed. Over the next few weeks, white militias and mobs in the area murdered about 120 slaves, most of whom were not involved in the revolt. Watch a short History.com video.

1887 – Mighty Casey struck out in a baseball game with the New York Giants. This is the fictional date of the event written about in Ernest L. Thayer’s poem “Casey at the Bat.” Dan Casey was a composite of several people Thayer knew.

1947 – The first Little League World Series is held. The Maynard Midgets of Williamsport, Pennsylvania, defeated a team from Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. The tournament is for baseball players age 11 to 13.

1959 – Hawaii becomes the 50th (and last) U.S. state. In 1778, Captain James Cook was the first European to discover the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii was annexed in 1897 during the McKinley administration.

1993 – NASA loses contact with the Mars Observer, which was launched on September 25, 1992. Attempts to re-establish communication with the spacecraft were unsuccessful.

1997 – Hudson Foods Inc. closes a plant in Nebraska after it recalls 25 million pounds of ground beef that is potentially contaminated with E. coli 01557:H7. It was the largest food recall in U.S. history.

2018 – Paul Manafort is convicted in eight counts of fraud in federal court as part of Robert Meuller’s special investigation. Manafort served only a few months of his 7.5 year sentence, being released to home confinement in May 2020 due to the Coronavirus.

1762 – Ann Franklin is the first female U.S. newspaper editor. She inherited the newspaper “Mercury” from her husband James Franklin, brother of Ben Franklin.

1902 – President Teddy Roosevelt becomes first U.S. chief executive to ride in a car. He rode in a Columbia Electric Victoria Phaeton while on a campaign tour through Connecticut.

1906 – The Victor Talking Machine Company of Camden, New Jersey, begins to manufacture the Victrola. The hand-cranked unit, with horn cabinet, sold for $200.

1921 – J. Edgar Hoover becomes the assistant director of the FBI. He became the director in 1924 and led the FBI for 48 years until his death in 1972 at age 77.

1956 – Elvis Presley begins filming his first movie, “Love Me Tender,” which is released in November. Watch Elvis sing the title song in the movie.

1962 – Savannah, the world’s first nuclear-powered ship, completes her maiden voyage from Yorktown, Virginia, to Savannah, Georgia. She was decommissioned in 1972 and in 1999 the Savannah was moved to the James River Merchant Marine Reserve Fleet near Newport News, Virginia.

1989 – Nolan Ryan becomes the first major league pitcher to strike out 5,000 batters. He finished his 27-year career (longest in baseball history) with 5,714 strikeouts. Ryan, now age 73, was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1999. Watch Ryan make Rickey Henderson swing at the air.

1992 – An FBI sniper shoots and kills Vicki Weaver, wife of white separatist Randy Weaver, during an 11-day siege at their home at Ruby Ridge, Idaho. She was holding her infant daughter, who was unharmed. Fourteen-year-old Sammy Weaver and a U.S. Marshall were shot to death the day before. President Clinton fired his FBI director on July 19, 1993, one day before Vince Foster “committed suicide.”

2007 – The Texas Rangers rout the Baltimore Orioles 30-3, the most runs scored by a team in modern baseball history.

1923 – Capt. Lowell Smith and Lt. John P. Richter perform the first mid-air refueling. Their flight in a De Havilland DH-4B set an endurance flight record of 37 hours.

1947 – President Truman’s daughter Margaret makes her first public singing concert. A poor review after her third performance in 1950 caused the president to write a threatening letter to the Washington Post’s music critic. Listen to a 1950 audio recording of Margaret and judge for yourself.

1966 – Lunar Orbiter 1 takes the first photographs of Earth while orbiting the Moon.

1984 – Southfork Ranch in Parker, Texas, home of the fictitious Ewing clan of the TV show “Dallas” is sold. The ranch was transformed from a tourist site into a hotel resort and a conference/ event center.

1999 – American Robert Bogucki is rescued after getting lost on July 11 while bicycling in the Great Sandy Desert of Australia. During his 43-day ordeal Bogucki lost 44 pounds.


Correspondence in the Worst of Times Library Hosts Evening of Readings of War Letters

In the tense days preceding the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Abigail Adams urged her husband, future president John Adams, to declare independence without delay, while chiding him about the despotic nature of his own sex.

Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), journalist Steve Roberts and biographer Edmond Morris read excerpts from War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars at the Library May 16. - Fern Underdue and Paul Hogroian

A staged burlesque has nothing on the amusing but urgent plea of a Civil War soldier who personally writes Abraham Lincoln to obtain a discharge from the Union Army so that he can save his family from the lusty excesses of his faithless wife.

Bravura and pathos mix in the words of Theodore Roosevelt as he describes events surrounding the death of his youngest child, Quentin, a World War I fighter pilot.

An absent father's birthday letter to his son captures the quiet sacrifices of peace-keeping duty from a U.S. military base in war-torn Bosnia.

ABC News correspondent Cokie Roberts, Sen. Daniel K. Inouye, Sen. John McCain and writer Christopher Buckley were among the participants that read from these and other letters selected from a new book edited by author Andrew Carroll, War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars (Scribner, 2001), during a Books & Beyond program held at the Library on May 16.

The Center for the Book and the American Folklife Center cosponsored the event to kick off a new three-year national reading promotion theme, "Telling America's Stories." Center for the Book Director John Y. Cole and Veterans History Project Director Ellen Lovell introduced Mr. Carroll and the guest readers. Authorized by Congress last year, the Veterans Oral History Project will collect oral histories, letters, diaries and other materials that reflect the legacy of American veterans.

Andrew Carroll began "Project Legacy" to preserve America's rapidly diminishing firsthand chronicle of wartime experience and emotions.

"Every day these letters are getting thrown away or lost," he said. "This is a tragedy. They are the first unfiltered draft of history."

Andrew Carroll is the founder of Project Legacy, a national, all volunteer campaign that encourages Americans to safeguard wartime correspondence. The May 16 program begins Mr. Carroll's trip to 20 American cities in search of historically significant war letters. Mr. Carroll is the editor of a previous collection of historic American letters and of a collection of famous 20th century speeches. In 1994, he co-founded the Literacy Project with former poet laureate the late Josef Brodsky.

War Letters editor Andrew Carroll with Center for the Book Director John Cole review the program prior to the presentation on May 16. - Paul Hogroian

Project Legacy struck gold when it amassed more than 50,000 copies of original war correspondence in response to a request for assistance published by Abigail Van Buren in a 1998 "Dear Abby" column. Not all of the letters featured in the program can be found among the approximately 200 compiled in the book. Others, written in the authentic vernacular of the combat soldier, were read to the audience in slightly edited form.

Washington commentator and ABC News journalist Cokie Roberts began the program by reading a letter from Abigail Adams to her husband, John Adams, a delegate to the Continental Congress then debating the question of formal separation from Great Britain. In addition to demanding political independence for the 13 Colonies, Mrs. Adams challenged her husband and his fellow lawmakers to extend the principles of liberty and equality to women as they hammered out the framework of the new democracy.

"I long to hear that you have declared an independency," wrote Mrs. Adams. "And by the way, in the new code of laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies, and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could."

Steve and Cokie Roberts read selections from the timeless correspondance of John and Abigail Adams. - Paul Hogroian

Adams, said Ms. Roberts, replied that he would call on General Washington to deploy all his troops rather than submit to "petticoat government."

Ms. Roberts and her husband, Steve Roberts, also a journalist, together read portions of the unique World War I exchange between Goldie Marcellus and her husband, Edward, a clerk stationed at forward bases in Germany. Upon getting a handwritten missive from his wife, Marcellus would type brief retorts directly on the letter and return it to her in the States. Their dialogue shows that love and fidelity were matters of anxiety in the trenches and on the homefront.

Goldie: So some of the men in your Co. go with girls.

Edward: No, not girls, frauleins.

Goldie: Well, dear Ed, I suspect there is much more of "not being loyal" by the girls over here.

Edward: Yes, I know all about them.

Goldie: I just read in the paper where a returned soldier came back only to find the one he had been true to in love with another man, so he killed her.

Edward: Yes, you'll find the members of the A.E.F. are not afraid to kill.

The room erupted in laughter when Mr. Roberts read an 1863 letter from John M. Newton, an enlisted man in the Union Army, to President Abraham Lincoln.

"Dear Mr. Lincoln:
When the Civil War broke out, I went right in. I did and I fought and bled for the cause and left my wife and family. And when I came home on furlough last month I found she had been diddling other men. And I would like to have a discharge to take care of my children, for I won't live with her, and I don't want any of my children to live with her, for she diddles all the time—and has got the clap, which I now have got too. And I want a discharge for me to take care of my children when I get well.

Yours truly and affectionately,
John M. Newton"

Lincoln, it is reported, accepted the soldier's plea and granted his discharge.

Sen. Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii) and Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) read letters that told more somber stories. Senator Inouye received the Congressional Medal of Honor and was severely wounded during World War II as part of the now legendary 442nd Regimental Combat Team, a unit composed entirely of Japanese Americans, many of whose families had been interred in the United States after the bombing of Pearl Harbor and officially classified as "enemy aliens."

Author Andrew Carroll discusses his collection of war letters with reader Christopher Buckley in the Center for the Book office prior to the Books & Beyond presentation. - Paul Hogroian

During July 1944, Pfc. Ernest Uno, a Japanese American serving with the 442nd, wrote his sister from Italy, scene of some of the most brutal fighting of the war.

"There was one time while we were fighting that one sniper killed one of our men. A [local] woman saw him die, and she sat by the body and wept. Maybe she had a son once, who knows? But she refused to leave the body, and between tears, she tried to tell us how horrible it was to see an American soldier die for their sake. It was very pathetic."

Private Uno survived the war and, after a 30-year career with the YMCA, studied theology and became a deacon of the Episcopal Church.

Senator McCain, a former Navy fighter pilot who served in Vietnam, read a letter to home from Airman 3/C Robert Zwerlein, one of his shipmates on the U.S.S. Forrestal, an aircraft carrier on station in the Gulf of Tonkin.

"Ya know, Sue, the night before we pulled out of the Philippines to leave for Yankee Station some guys and I went to the club for a couple (80 or 90) drinks. Well &hellip there are guys from all over the USA and as it always happens the band would play DIXIE and all the guys from the south would start singing and yelling and cursing the Yankees from the north and the same thing would happen when the band would play Yankee Doodle only we got up. But as soon as that band started to play God Bless America, everyone, no matter where they were from, just stood up and started to sing. It was really great. It made me feel real good. I wish people back home could have seen it.

Author Andrew Carroll discusses his collection of war letters with reader Sen. Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii) in the Center for the Book office prior to the Books & Beyond presentation. - Paul Hogroian

"I imagine a lot of them would say it was a bunch of drunken sailors that didn't even know what they were singing. But it wasn't that at all. It was a bunch of guys that are proud of their country and will fight and die if necessary for it."

On July 29, 1967, four days after Zwerlein wrote his letter, the accidental detonation of a missile on a loaded flight deck sparked an inferno that engulfed the Forrestal. During the explosion and ensuing battle to save the ship, 134 sailors lost their lives, including Airman Zwerlein, who died from his wounds on August 1, 1967. He was 21 years old.

Pulitzer Prize-winning biographer Edmond Morris read President Theodore Roosevelt's affecting letter to Mrs. H.L. Freeland, a woman who had written him condolences on the death of his son, Quentin, a pilot serving in World War I. Because of the lag in communications between the front lines and the States, Roosevelt continued to receive mail from Quentin after he already knew of his death.

"It is hard to open the letters coming from those you love who are dead," Roosevelt wrote, "but Quentin's last letters, written &hellip when of his squadron on an average a man was killed every day, are written with real joy in the 'great adventure' &hellip. He had his crowded hour, he died at the crest of life, in the glory of the dawn."

Also present was Gary F. Powers Jr., the son of Francis Gary Powers, the pilot of the U-2 spy plane that was shot down on May 1, 1960, during the height of the Cold War, while on a surveillance mission for the CIA. Mr. Powers read the first letter his father sent his parents from his jail cell in Moscow. Despite being a guest of the KGB and facing a possible death sentence for crimes against the Soviet state, Mr. Powers's main concern was for the pain his predicament would cause his family.

"I sincerely hope that you both are well," Mr. Powers wrote. "I was very worried about how this news would affect you. Mom please take care of yourself and believe me when I say I am being treated much better than I expected to be &hellip Dad, you see that Mom takes care of herself &hellip I am very sorry about all this. I am sorry for all the pain and anxiety I have caused you and am still causing you."

After almost two years in prison, Mr. Powers was released in a prisoner exchange and rejoined his family. During the ensuing years, his son said, Mr. Powers harbored no resentment about the incident. He also, apparently, managed to balance humor with the need to keep classified information secret.

"Dad, how high were you really flying when you got shot down?" Mr. Powers Jr. says he used to ask as a boy.

"Son, not high enough," his father would reply.

Washington writer and journalist Christopher Buckley read the final letter in the program.

Maj. Tom O' Sullivan, on peacekeeping duty in Bosnia, wrote the letter to his son, Conor, on the occasion of his seventh birthday.

"I am very sorry that I could not be home for your seventh birthday," O'Sullivan wrote.

"I remember the day you were born and how happy I was. It was the happiest I have ever been in my life and I will never forget that day &hellip That day was so special to me that I think it is right to have a celebration each year to remember it.

"There aren't any stores here in Bosnia, so I couldn't buy you any toys or souvenirs for your birthday. What I am sending you is something very special, though. It is a flag. This flag represents America and makes me proud each time I see it. When people here in Bosnia see it &hellip they know that it represents freedom and, for them, peace after many years of war. Sometimes, this flag is even more important to them than it is to people who live in America because some Americans don't know much about the sacrifices it represents or the peace it has brought to places like Bosnia.

"This flag was flown on the flagpole over the headquarters of Task Force 4-67 Armor, Camp Colt, in the Posavina Corridor of northern Bosnia-Herzegovina, on 16 September 1996. It was flown in honor of you on your seventh birthday. Keep it and honor it always."


Francis Gary Powers Jr. dishes on his dad, the famed U-2 pilot, June 9 at Cold War Museum he founded at Vint Hill

Spy Pilot” is the engaging name of a new book.

Bridge of Spies” was a recent movie at Winchester’s Alamo Theater.

Francis Gary Powers is the literal hero of both.

Francis Gary Powers, Jr. of Richmond is the son and author.

Carol and Malcolm Barr, Jr. of Front Royal and Gloucester. Va., are cousins of the two Powers. Both Barr Jr. and Francis Gary Powers coincidentally had similar, interrupted, military careers. Both served in the U.S. Air Force. Both were intelligence specialists. Barr served in Iraq Powers flew U-2s.

On June 9, Powers Jr., will meet his kinfolk, one of them for the first time, at the Cold War Museum, Vint Hill, near Gainesville, where he will discuss his book, his hero dad, and the museum he founded.

And we all know, don’t we, that Francis Gary Powers piloted a U-2 spy plane over the Soviet Union in 1960, was shot down, imprisoned, released in a spy swap in 1962, thus ending one of the biggest international incidents of any war in recent history.

Except that it didn’t end there. A cloud of suspicion lingered over Powers until his untimely death in a helicopter crash in California in 1977. “Powers should have done this (taken a poison pill), Powers should have done that (blown up the U-2),” some were saying.

It has taken Gary Powers, the son, more than 40 years to complete, along with co-author Keith Dunnavant, the definitive account of the famous Cold War incident proving that his father acted honorably through a trying ordeal while serving his country. In other words, he was doing, for the CIA, as he was told.

The book, “Spy Pilot,” is billed as a biography. To me, it reads like a novel. It is riveting throughout, and is impeccably researched. Gary Powers, exhibiting extraordinary patience in dealing with bureaucrats, mainly in the United States, and including a director of our Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), but also in the Soviet Union, to set the record straight.

His dad, it can truthfully be said, is and was a hero from the get-go, and his son now has thousands of documents to prove it.

Francis Gary Powers and Francis Gary Powers Jr.

In an unlikely Foreword, unlikely to me, anyway, Sergei Khrushchev, son of the president of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev, who effectively jailed Francis Gary Powers for espionage, said of Gary the Younger: “I have watched Francis Gary Powers Jr. work tirelessly to honor and preserve the memory of his father, an ordinary American who was caught up in extraordinary circumstances. I, too, have made great efforts to honor and preserve the legacy of my father…”

Khrushchev was credited with helping avert nuclear disaster while working with American presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy, moving the two super powers toward “peaceful coexistence.”

Sergei and Gary became friends.

While at the CIA in Langley in 2009, Carol paused at the Francis Gary Powers exhibit in the main building’s small museum, saluting its heroes of the past. “My cousin,” she murmured to our retiring host. “I never knew him growing up but knew who he was later. I was 20 and worked in Washington when he crashed and also when he came home.” The cousins lived a few miles from each other in Southwest Virginia, she in Coeburn, he in Pound.

Hollywood actor Robert Conrad, a Powers family friend, said of the U-2 pilot: “Francis Gary Powers was a patriot who got a raw deal, and his son has devoted his life to revealing the truth.”

Gary will discuss his book in detail on Sunday afternoon, June 9 from 2-4 p.m. If you don’t make the relatively short trip to Vint Hill, you may buy “Spy Pilot” by going to Prometheusbooks.com

For tickets to the Cold War Museum, visit: Spy Pilot: The Truth About U-2 Pilot Francis Gary Powers

The Museum is located at Vint Hill, a former top secret intelligence base. The address is 7172 Lineweaver Rd., Vint Hill, 20187, next to Vint Hill Craft Winery and across the parking lot from Old Bust Head Brewery.

Biography on Francis Gary Powers, Jr.

Born June 5, 1965, in Burbank, California, he is the son of Francis Gary and Claudia “Sue” Powers. Gary holds a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Philosophy from California State University, Los Angeles, and a Master’s Degree in Public Administration / Certification in Non-profit Management from George Mason University (GMU), Fairfax, Virginia. He graduated in 2019 with his Master’s Degree in U.S. History from Adams State University, Alamosa, CO.

Gary is the Founder and Chairman Emeritus of The Cold War Museum, a 501(c) (3) charity located at Vint Hill, VA 45 minutes west of Washington, DC. He founded the museum in 1996 to honor Cold War veterans, preserve Cold War history, and educate future generations about this time period. As Chairman of the Presidential Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study he works with the National Park Service and leading Cold War experts to identify historic Cold War sites for commemorating, interpreting, and preservation. Recently, he consulted for a Steven Spielberg Cold War thriller, Bridge of Spies, about James Donovan who brokered the 1962 spy exchange between KGB spy Rudolph Abel and CIA U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers, Sr.

Gary is the author of Letters from a Soviet Prison (2017) and Spy Pilot (2019) which both help to dispel the misinformation surrounding the U-2 Incident. He is a Board Member of the Strategic Air Command and Aerospace Museum near Omaha, NE and an Honorary Board Member of the International Spy Museum in Washington, DC. Because of his efforts to honor Cold War veterans the Junior Chamber of Commerce selected him as one of the “Ten Outstanding Young Americans” for 2002. Gary lectures internationally and appears regularly on C-SPAN, the History, Discovery, and A&E Channels. He is married and has one son.


This video of a dropping mortar round is the best prank footage you’ll see all week

Posted On February 24, 2016 22:15:43

Pranking your buddy in war has been a pastime of bored soldiers since Gen. George Washington slipped Maj. Gen. Benedict Arnold’s hand in warm water while he slept. (Arnold got back at him by selling the plans to West Point’s defenses).

A Middle Eastern fighter got in on the action by dropping a – hopefully fake – mortar round next to his buddy while the other guy was focused on his smartphone.

Check out the action (and the phone junkie’s hilarious reaction) in the video below:

MIGHTY TACTICAL

A Spy For a Spy STRANGERS ON A BRIDGE: The Case of Colonel Abel, Ry James 8. Danovan. 432 pp. New York: Atheneum. $6.95.

THE events of Saturday, Feb. 10, 1962, were unique in the ange history of the Iron Curtain. On that date, between East and West, two men passed in opposite directions, each a representative of the craft of intelligence. One was Col. Rudolph Abel, an illegal Soviet resident agent in the United States. The other was Francis Gary Powers, the U‐2 pilot. Neither had ever seen the other before that cold gray morning on the Glienicker Bridge separating East and West Berlin. Their fates had been bound together through the work of James B. Donovan.

In “Strangers on a Bridge,” Donovan has presented, enthrallingly, the stories of these two men. When I was first asked to review the book, I hesitated. In an official capacity I had been involved in both incidents. While I was its director, the Central Intelligence Agency had been responsible for turning up the first clues leading to the apprehension of Colonel Abel in 1957. Needless to say, I was no stranger to the Powers case. Also I was an old friend of Donovan's from the days of the Office of Strategic Services, when we both were working for his distinguished namesake, Wild Bill Donovan. For Jim Donovan is a professional, not only in the law, but also in intelligence. My scruples disappeared, however, when I read the book. It is a truly remarkable and balanced account of how its author fulfilled his stewardship as a lawyer and proved his worth as anegotiator.

HERE, once again, in the first story (the account of Abel's trial) is American justice at its finest. The Soviet Government had repudiated the man called Abel—whose true name and identity is not known—but our judicial system assured hinm a fair trial, and the Brooklyn Bar Association secured, in Donovan, an eminent advocate to defend him. One can only wonder what Moscow thought about it all. Certainly they must have been amazed at our legal procedures. They probably thought us crazy to quibble among ourselves about the way we obtained evidence of a spy's guilt.

Each of the two stories Donovan tells, the trial and the exchange, has a fairy‐tale type of ending with virtue triumphing. In the first story, he emerges as a hero, although he presents his role modestly and objectively, in a trial which most of his friends told him might end his legal career.

And he so emerges because he fought hard to see that every legal defense was presented. On the whole, it was fortunate for Donovan that he had an honorable, though hairline, defeat. If the result had been that a Soviet spy was to go unpunished because of an alleged technical error in obtaining the evidence, the popular feeling of frustration might have turned against Donovan.

There were points of real tension between the lawyer and his client, the highly intelligent and crafty Colonel Abel. Obviously each had a kind of respect for the other. Donovan recounts how on Nov. 15, 1957, just after the strain of argument prior to the passing of the sentence—Abel received 30 years imprisonment—he visited Abel in his cell. As Donovan writes, “Abel seemed to have no care in the world.” This dramatic scene follows:

“ ‘That wasn't bad,’ he said finally. ‘What you said up there was quite well done. But you are correct in your law points and I have only one question. When your appeal succeeds and the indictment is dismissed, what happens to me then?’

“My shirt was damp and heavy against my sides with perspiration. I was emotionally drained, and now he had the gall to tell me, ‘Not bad.’ This cool professional's self‐control was too much for me just then.

“‘Rudolf,’ I said, looking him directly in the face, ‘if all my work is successful, I may have to shoot you myself. Don't forget, I still am a commander in Naval Intelligence.’

“He puffed once, exhaled and then said quietly, ‘You know, I think you would.’

“The tension was broken. He offered me one of his cigarettes and then we got down to business . . .”—the business of deciding upon the appeal.

THE second story follows hard n to the final disposition of the Abel case by a 5‐4 decision of the Supreme Court of the United States on March 28, 1960. Donovan's plea to the New York Court on Abel's sentencing strongly recommended that the death sentence, a possible punishment, not be imposed. With rare foresight, he argued that the time might come when an American would be caught in Russia and an exchange might be in the best interests of the United States.

The force of Donovan's prophecy was shown later when Francis Gary Powers and his U‐2 plane came down with a thud in May, 1960, deep in Soviet territory. After more than a hundred days of solitary confinement and a certain amount of “conditioning” for trial, Powers was given a show trial and a Soviet stooge to defend him. The whole proceeding contrasted vividly with the American trial, though Powers's sentence of 10 years of imprison‐ ment and confinement was more moderate than the 30 years given to Abel.

Donovan was quick to see the possibilities in this new situation and he presented to our Government strong arguments for an exchange. I am myself skeptical about spy swapping with the Soviets. They are likely to leave more exchange material in our hands than we in theirs. Hence they may do as they have in the past: arrest innocent victims to have a ready “stable” of exchangees.

However, the Abel case seemed to justify an exception. A trial had been held the facts were known to the American people. There was nothing more we could reasonably expect to get from Abel unless he decided to talk freely and frankly about the organization which he served. This seemed unlikely, and anyway his information was then well out of

date and of limited value. Powers had faithfully served his country, and I felt deserved our help. I do not share the popular impression that he had talked indiscreetly at the trial. He told the Soviets little, if anything, that they had not already known when the U‐2 plane came down, largely intact. Before I left the Government I put myself on record as favoring the exchange and so advised the Secretary of State.

ONCE official approval was received, Donovan, with the negotiating skill he has shown in other situations, secured not only Powers's release for Abel but that of yet another American held behind the Curtain. His dealings with the Soviets and his contacts with the East Germans were frustrating and difficult, as he recounts, but patience and firmness prevailed.

It is remarkable that James Donovan, with all his recent responsibilities as a lawyer, his successful negotiations with Castro for the release of the Cuban prisoners, his presidency of the Board of Education of the City of New York, and his duties as a political ieader, could have found the time to put together this rewarding tale.

It is true that someone could pick a few points on which to differ with Donovan's views. Abel, I believe, did not direct the entire Soviet espionage network in North America, but he was an important cog in their “illegal” network here in the United States. The author is a bit severe on Abel's henchman who turned state's evidence against his master and thereby destroyed a Soviet network in our midst. And finally Donovan's “diary” style of writing, with day‐by‐day entries, at times tends to chop up the flow of the story. But, on the whole, he has done us a real service in writing this engrossing and forthright book.


Inside the Plane

May Day turned out to be a bad day for an overflight. The country might have been focussed on celebrations, but there was less Soviet military air traffic than usual. Radar operators saw Powers when he was still 15 miles south of the Soviet-Afghan border. By the time the U-2 reached Tashkent, more than a dozen interceptors had scrambled into the sky to follow him.

Four and a half hours into the flight, still with the telltale condensation trails of Soviet fighters below him, Powers was at about 68,000 feet (some accounts list his altitude at this point as 70,500 feet) approaching Sverdlovsk. Then the Soviets launched three missiles. One hit another Soviet interceptor, one did nothing, and one detonated close to and just behind the U-2. In that instant, Powers heard a hollow-sounding explosion behind him accompanied by an orange-yellow flash. The shockwave of the blast was powerful enough to rip apart the delicate aircraft. Powers was suddenly losing altitude.

As the U-2 fell, it entered a spin. Centrifugal forces in the cockpit were so strong Powers was thrown against the canopy, at by the time he hit 30,000 feet, he had to accept he couldn’t use his ejection seat from that position. He popped the canopy and released his seatbelt, and was instantly sucked out of the cockpit. The only thing keeping him connected was his oxygen hose. Dangling precariously, he tried but couldn’t reach the destruction switches designed to destroy the camera. Protocol dictated he at least try to hide the plane’s true intention by destroying the film that would reveal its mission.

The hose eventually broke, sending Powers tumbling away from the plane. His parachute opened automatically at 14,000 feet when he separated from the plane, and he survived the fall to land in a rural area, as did his plane. The first to greet him we farmers, followed in short order by Soviet officials. He didn’t once think about resisting his arrest. He went with his captors willingly.


Treason Is So Easy You’d Think It Was Being Encouraged

trea·son (trē’zən) — Violation of allegiance toward one’s country or sovereign, especially the betrayal of one’s country by waging war against it or by consciously and purposely acting to aid its enemies.[1]

American education may have substituted teaching children unrevised history for the technique of putting a condom on a cucumber, but at least legend has kept the name of Benedict Arnold in the national psyche.

Unfortunately, that is no substitute for a real education one that tells you the whole story.

Benedict Arnold & John André

Benedict Arnold at Saratoga

Prior to 1780, Benedict Arnold was a true hero. During a courageous but unsuccessful attack on the fortress of Quebec, Arnold was seriously wounded in his leg. Although Quebec was not taken, a blockade was sustained and for that and his heroism Congress promoted Arnold to brigadier general in 1776. But the seeds of his discontent were sown while he continued to distinguish himself in battle he watched other less-qualified brigadiers get promoted before him.

In October of 1776, Arnold’s heroic efforts caused “Gentleman Johnny” Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga. During the action, he was again shot in the same leg as before, causing him to have a permanent and severe limp.

Arnold’s aggressive successes were a thorn in the side of his superior, General Horatio Gates, who made sure Arnold received no credit.

Congress added to his anger by not only passing him over for promotion but also finding excuses not to pay his wartime expenses — which he had taken care of out of his own pocket but which Congress couldn’t afford to cover.

His wounds effectively took him out of the war and General Washington gave him the military command of Philadelphia where he tried to bury his pain in lavish balls that he couldn’t afford.

But trouble still dogged him. He was now deep in debt and political attacks kept coming from his enemies. In June of 1779 Congress court martialed him for malfeasance and convicted him of two misdemeanors.

Even the lone bright spot in Arnold’s life fed the intrigue that lead to his infamy. In 1779, Arnold wooed into marriage Peggy Shippen of Philadelphia. Peggy was a beautiful young girl who had many courters, one of which was a British officer who had tried to win her over during the occupation of the colonial capital. Though the officer was charming and accomplished, she was won over by Arnold a short time later.

That officer was Major John André. He spoke four languages, was a painter, a poet and could even sing.

He was also the head of British intelligence for the war against the colonials.

Arnold had finally had enough and began corresponding with General Sir Henry Clinton in New York City through André. Arnold lobbied General Washington for command of the fort at West Point. West Point was of great strategic importance as it overlooked the mouth of the Hudson river and controlled all commerce in and out. General Washington graciously granted his request, not knowing that it had been made for the express purpose of committing treason.

Arnold continued his intrigue with the British who brought their top man—John André—to him via the HMS Vulture. After their meeting, André dawned commoner’s clothing and Arnold gave him a passport and plans on how the British could take West Point both in his own handwriting.

But before André could make it back to the Vulture, he was stopped by three militiamen who, also wearing common clothes, had the appearance of robbing André. André thought he had got them to identify themselves as Tories for the purpose of bargaining with them until they proclaimed that they were Americans. He quickly showed them Arnold’s passport but now their suspicions were aroused. Although André claimed again that the soldiers only wished to rob him, he had to admit that they declined his lavish offer for freedom—to take his watch and his fine horse—in favor of escorting him to colonial authorities.

André was tried by a resoundingly impressive gallery of names including General Nathanael Greene, Brigadier General Henry Knox, Baron Friedrich von Steuben and the Marquis de Lafayette.

Having been found behind American lines, in the clothes of a commoner, under an assumed name and with papers disclosing the tactical weaknesses of fort West Point, André was convicted of espionage.

You, Sir, Are a Spy by Don Stivers

Boot Monument anonymously commemorates Benedict Arnold’s bravery at the Battle of Saratoga

Several of General Washington’s most trusted advisors pleaded for a stay in André’s death sentence. Washington — although a brilliant hand at the game of spying[2] — was still reeling from this unseen betrayal. His only concession was that André would be spared if the British would return General Arnold to him (who had escaped with his wife upon hearing of André’s capture). The British refused.

So, General George Washington, the father of our country, fought every human impulse inside of him and served a higher call. For the sake of “justice” and for the sake of his fledgling nation, he ordered the sentence on John André to be carried out. André appealed to General Washington to be executed as a man of honor—shot by firing squad — but Washington held firm and did to André what the British had done to 21 year old Nathan Hale four years before had him hanged.

Benedict Arnold was made a brigadier general in the Royal Army and lead a raid against Richmond, Virginia. This sealed his reputation as a traitor.

It is said that Arnold asked an officer he had taken captive about what the Americans would do if they captured him, and the captain is said to have replied “Cut off your right leg, bury it with full military honors, and then hang the rest of you on a gibbet.”[3]

By now, however, the war was becoming an excessive burden for Great Britain. The surrender of General Lord Charles Cornwallis at Yorktown was the final straw. Arnold emigrated with his wife to England but he was never again trusted with a military command and failed as a merchant. He died of gout and “dropsy” in 1801.

The monument erected in Saratoga National Historical Park to commemorate his bravery does so without mentioning his name.

The Decadence Begins

Espionage was a major component of WWII. Perhaps the most famous was that of German commandos during the Battle of the Ardennes Forest (also known as the “Battle of the Bulge”). Teams of saboteurs were sent behind American lines to disrupt communications, alter road signs, blow up fuel and ammunition stores and even attempt to assassinate high-ranking officials.

Lead by SS Standartenführer Otto Skorzeny, these teams had the effect of sending the proudest names in the U.S. Army hierarchy like — Dwight David Eisenhower (once a clerk to General Douglas MacArthur) and Omar Bradley (nicknamed “the soldier’s general”) — into deep seclusion.[4]

Despite their expertise and training, however, many were caught:

On December 18th [1944] a suspicious-looking group of American soldiers appeared out of the woods near Poteau on self-propelled guns abandoned earlier by the 14th Cavalry Group. Challenged by the American sentry of the 7th Armored Division, the Germans approaching in the distance replied in stilted English that “We are E Company!” Unknown to the imposters, however, the tank destroyers of a cavalry group are known as a “troop” rather than a company.[5]

Military tribunals were called and the saboteurs who had survived the battlefield (those of the phony “E Company” mentioned above, did not) were executed.

A U.S. Army medic examines the bodies of 3 German spies shot by firing squad in Herbesthal, Belgium, December 1944 (Bettmann-Corbis)

But such espionage was not confined to Europe.

Several attempts were made by Germany to land spies in the United States. In 1942, Germany sent 8 spies, 4 to Long Island, New York and 4 to Jacksonville, Florida, via 2 U-Boats. They were all captured and tried. 6 were given death sentences, 1 life in prison and 1 thirty years.

However, unlike the methods the American military used in dealing with spies found in Europe, American politicians (not quite near the front lines) saw a less harsher reality. Before all of the sentences could be carried out (4 of the spies were shot), President Harry S. Truman (Democrat) granted clemency to the surviving 2, deporting them to the American zone of Germany in 1948.

Amazingly, some of the spies were even American citizens trained by the German Abwehr such as William Curtis Colepaugh, who was delivered in 1944 via U-1230 and captured in Boston. He, too, was granted clemency by President Harry S. Truman (Democrat).[6]

Although the depth of treachery would reach new heights in contemporary times, the approach used by the American executive and judicial branches would never again see the resolve of our proud ancestors.

Communism’s Fruits: Julius & Ethel Rosenberg

Julius Rosenberg and Ethel Greenglass were a typical New York Jewish couple…except that they met each other at the Young Communist League in 1936.

Shortly after, the two were married and full-fledged members of the American Communist Party in 1942.

That same year, Julius Rosenberg was recruited by the KGB and dropped out of the Communist Party to avoid suspicion while he carried out his espionage activities.

Kangaroo-court “trial” of Francis Gary Powers in August of 1960. This national humiliation was made possible by technology Julius Rosenberg gave the Soviet Union.

By 1944, Rosenberg was feeding information to his KGB handler, Alexandre Feklisov, as sensitive and as devastating as the proximity fuse, a derivative of which would one day shoot down the U-2 spyplane of Francis Gary Powers.

Rosenberg also got busy recruiting other traitors who, in turn, gave over more secrets and technology. One such traitor was Ethel’s brother, David Greenglass (also a member of the American Communist Party). David worked at Los Alamos National Laboratories in New Mexico. Greenglass began to pass vital information to Rosenberg regarding research on the first atomic bomb (codenamed “the Manhattan Project”). The importance of this betrayal can truly not be over-emphasized.

It took British and American counter-intelligence together to break the spy ring. As lesser names were captured, it eventually lead to Greenglass being arrested. Through a plea-bargain that spared his life and kept his wife free to raise their children, Greenglass disclosed the involvement of his sister and brother-in-law.

The Rosenbergs did not present sympathetic defendants. Rather than come clean or offer information regarding other Soviet plants, they both claimed the 5 th Amendment of the Constitution and kept silent lest they “implicate” themselves. They were convicted and sentenced to death in March of 1951.

Their death sentences were unique, made possible by the amazing intervention of Divine Providence putting a justice-seeking patriot behind the bench (something almost unheard of in today’s “adulterous generation”): Judge Irving Kaufman. At the sentencing, Judge Kaufman said this —

I consider your crime worse than murder…I believe your conduct in putting into the hands of the Russians the A-Bomb years before our best scientists predicted Russia would perfect the bomb has already caused, in my opinion, the Communist aggression in Korea, with the resultant casualties exceeding 50,000 and who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price of your treason. Indeed, by your betrayal you undoubtedly have altered the course of history to the disadvantage of our country. No one can say that we do not live in a constant state of tension. We have evidence of your treachery all around us every day for the civilian defense activities throughout the nation are aimed at preparing us for an atom bomb attack.[7]

The stoically traitorous American Communists: Julius & Ethel Rosenberg.

I tried to research Judge Kaufman’s religious background but the closest I could get where the very ethnic names of his parents: Irving Robert Kaufman, son of Herman Kaufman and Rose (Spielberg) Kaufman. I don’t think it’s a blind leap of faith to suggest that, like the Rosenbergs, Judge Irving Kaufman was also Jewish.

Although the death of any human being is never something to exalt over (even two people that did as much harm and damage as the Rosenbergs), the proper metering out of “justice” is. And to have the Rosenberg’s Jewish persuasion nullified as a factor in their treason by the man who passed judgment on them is absolutely vital to the fabric of our great Melting Pot.

And, really, more than just a little inspiring. It is the last time you will be inspired if you have the courage to read on.

Traitors Post The Age of Aquarius: Christopher John Boyce and Andrew Daulton Lee

I am indebted to the Crime Library website for giving me a well-documented source of free material from which to augment the questionable writings of Wikipedia.org, which can be a great source of free information but can be edited by anyone!

Christopher Boyce was born Feb. 16, 1953 to two patriotic and devout Catholic parents, Charles and Noreen Boyce. Charles was transitioning from working for the FBI to taking a job with Defense Department aircraft manufacturer McDonnell Douglas.

Boyce took to his parents’ Catholicism quickly, becoming an alterboy and doing well in school. Childhood friend Andrew Daulton Lee (a.k.a. Daulton Lee) was also a Catholic alterboy. Boyce’s mother was so devout as to refuse to practice contraception, as per Catholic doctrine.

While Boyce was a quick study, Lee struggled with academics yet was talented at woodwork and other manual crafts.

At one point, it became a neighborhood fad to take up “falconry”—the aristocratic “sport” of training birds of prey to kill other animals on command. The two practiced this “sport” together and it drew them even closer.

But their families’ affluence and typical teenage rebellion were ignited into hatred of America thanks to an education system that got Boyce to doubt the Divinity of Jesus Christ, and a news media that played nonstop, one-sided coverage of the Vietnam war and the Watergate “scandal”.

Only a few months ago, international journalist and Lutheran theologian Uwe Siemon-Netto wrote a stinging retrospective of his time covering the Vietnam war of how the U.S. news media painted the resounding success of the military’s defense against the “Tet Offensive” as a resounding setback. But even more outrageous was their purposeful covering up of communist atrocities, of men, women and children being clubbed to death and thrown in graves they were forced to dig themselves. Even more horrific were the grave sites in which the bodies showed signs of the fanatic horror of being buried alive.

As we stood at one such site, Washington Post correspondent Peter Braestrup asked an American T.V. cameraman, “Why don’t you film this?” He answered, “I am not here to spread anti-communist propaganda.”

And what does every schoolkid (or every friggin adult, for that matter) know about 37 th president of the United States, Richard Milhous Nixon? “Crook” is probably the nicest word you’ll hear. What did Richard Nixon do to deserve one of the most infamous reputations in all of history? Did he round up whole sections of populations against their will and put them in internment camps based on their race alone? No, that was Franklin Roosevelt. Did he cozy up with perhaps the worst mass murderer in modern times (estimated by some experts as having slaughtered up to forty million people), Joseph Stalin, calling him “Uncle Joe” and turning all of Eastern Europe over to his tender mercies? No, Roosevelt again. Did he manage to pull off the unprecedented disaster of stagnating an economy while inflation continues unabated? Nope, that was Jimmy Carter. Did he personally give our most dangerous adversary, China, advances in technology and strategic advantages that should have put him in front of a firing squad for treason? Nah, that was William Jefferson Clinton. All Democrats who get a free pass from both the news media and the entire education establishment. Richard Nixon had his people brake into the Democrat party headquarters while it was stationed at the Watergate Hotel just to see what they had planned for the upcoming election (which he almost certainly was going to win hands-down anyway).

But the dirty press had a field day with the “news” and it was just one more reason why Christopher Boyce began to hate his country.

Daulton Lee found a way around his lack of popularity and poor grades by becoming a drug dealer.

After Boyce dropped out of three different colleges daddy hooked him up with a nice cushy job working for TRW Defense and Space Systems Group, a company that was helping the United States maintain her “spy” satellites.

Taking the trip to treason was made even easier by the outrageously inept security procedures.

Boyce claims that he saw how useless protesting was, and that it would be much more effective to give strategic secrets to America’s worst enemy, the Soviet Union (whose genocidal mass murder and massive civil oppression was just like what we have here in the United States…no, really).

He decided to run those secrets to a Soviet embassy in, say, Mexico. But he would need someone good with money and used to criminal activity to help him. His good friend Daulton Lee was first on that list.

The incompetence of Defense contractor TRW was, literally, criminal—

Christopher Boyce, like the others who worked in the Black Vault, was often sent outside the office on “booze runs” to the liquor store. He would go past the guards, satchel in hand, and they would obligingly look the other way.[8]

The weak link in the cooperative was Daulton Lee who spent much of his time high, drunk or both. Lee even began bragging to strangers that he was a “spy” as well as sometimes keeping Boyce’s half of the money to feed his habits.

In almost two years of spying, Boyce reaped only $20,000. His motive was never money, however. The motive was revenge against a country that had disillusioned him.[9]

While making a “drop” at the Soviet embassy in Mexico City, Mexico, Lee found himself suddenly surrounded by a myriad of Mexican police officers who were on a stake-out. Unfortunately for Lee, Mexico was having troubles with their own radical Leftist “insurrectos” who also used a similar tactic. He had the gall (or perhaps fear) to appeal to the American embassy where a CIA Intelligence officer discovered incriminating evidence on Lee that pointed unquestionably towards espionage. What happened next says volumes about the reality of the differences between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics—

The Mexicans…gave Lee a choice: he could be deported to either the Soviet Union or the U.S. He chose the United States.[10]

Recall that they were spying for the Soviet Union and Lee still chose to face the American “justice system” rather than run the risk of having annoyed the USSR.

Of course, the interrogations in Mexico and the U.S. quickly uncovered Boyce’s involvement and he was subsequently arrested.

Prosecuting Boyce and Lee for espionage ran the risks of all such trials. A public airing of the sources and methods of the crimes could further damage U.S. national security. Government officials were always on guard that too much not be revealed. In fact, the CIA and National Security Agency had concluded that the Department of Justice would have to drop the charges if the judge gave defense lawyers too much access to sensitive information…Unlike many defendants, Boyce took the witness stand. He repeatedly, brazenly perjured himself…The jury was unimpressed by Boyce’s tale. After less than three and a half hours of deliberations, they found Boyce guilty on all eight counts of espionage and conspiracy to commit espionage. He was sentenced to 40 years in prison.[11]

Commit treason? 40 years in prison. Do you think the executed John André was a better man than Christopher Boyce?

Because Lee’s defense was different, he was tried separately. Denise Noe described a marvel of Western decadence and stupidity created again by the media and education system of how a single juror refused to convict Lee because it was just possible that the CIA had put him up to everything he did. Judge Robert Kelleher had to step in and sentenced Lee to life in prison (probably due to Lee’s previous criminal activities).[12]

A movie depiction of this escapade hit the big screen in 1985 titled “The Falcon and the Snowman” based on Boyce’s pseudonym (from his sporting falconry days) and Lee’s expertise as a pusher of cocaine starring Timothy Hutton as Boyce and Sean Penn as the stoned traitor Daulton Lee (a role Penn didn’t have to try very hard to become).

John Anthony Walker

John Walker first act of notoriety was to get arrested for theft in 1955 and be offered jail time or join the military. It was a great exchange that worked out well for both the United States and the Navy (which this sterling individual chose to join).

While stationed in Boston, Walker met and married Barbara Crowley[13], and they had four children together, three daughters and a son. While stationed on the nuclear-powered submarine USS Andrew Jackson in Charleston, South Carolina, Walker opened a bar which immediately plunged him into debt.[14]

What did this fine gentleman do to assuage his debt? Walked directly into the Soviet embassy in 1967 and sold a classified document (a radio cipher card) for several thousand dollars, negotiating an ongoing salary of $500 to $1,000 a week.[15] It was all downhill from there—

From 1967 until 1985, he had provided the KGB with vital U.S. cryptographic secrets that had enabled Russian agents to decipher coded military messages. Soviet KGB General Boris Aleksandrovich Solomatin, who oversaw Walker, later called him the “most important” spy ever recruited by Russia. John Walker gave away the “keys to your most secret code machines,” Solomatin bragged, “giving us the equivalent of a seat inside your Pentagon where we could read your most vital secrets.” KGB officer Vitaly Yurchenko was more blunt: “Walker was the greatest case in KGB history. We deciphered millions of your messages. If there had been a war, we would have won it.”[16]

Walker was a quality man and a good father—

He preferred carousing with his shipmates to staying home with Barbara and the kids. On the rare times that he was at home, he called his daughters the “bitches.” Desperate to keep him, Barbara got pregnant again and on November 2, 1962, gave birth to a boy. John had always wanted a son and planned to name him: John Walker the Third. But Barbara, angry that John was at a baseball game with his pals when she gave birth, named their son, Michael Lance Walker, to spite him.[17]

Surprise, surprise, Walker cheated on his wife frequently after his brilliant capitalist venture bar began to tank. Are you seeing a character pattern here amongst the scum who betray their country??

He was shipped to Norfolk but the dummy had bought a bar in Boston which forced his wife to stay behind with their children and attempt to keep it from going under completely.

He claimed, at one point that he put a gun to his head but didn’t pull the trigger.[18] Oh if only he had. Unfortunately his new assignment as the watch officer in the radio message room at fleet headquarters put him in prime position to become a traitor to the Soviet Union for cash. The traitor took a radio “key list” to the Soviet embassy and asked to be put on the payroll with a salary of $1,000 a week. It was a request that the resident KGB officer was astounded to hear but, given the quality of the information he was glad to comply. No spy had ever asked to become an employee of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics before.

The Soviets told him not to spend his money conspicuously but he ignored them, hired someone to manage his bar and moved his family into a lavish apartment in VA. But, of course, that didn’t stop him from having adulterous affairs.

His wife caught on and, according to her,[19] joined him in a desperate attempt to save their marriage.

But then the Navy transferred him to San Diego where he lost his access to key lists and he began to go into debt again. He used his position to recruit a radio operator student of his, Jerry Alfred Whitworth by telling him that the intel they stole would go to an ally, Israel.

Walker, a source of illicit income assured, got out of the Navy and divorced his wife who moved to Maine where she had relatives. But, after some concern that Whitworth was getting tired of feeling “underpaid,” Walker began looking for others to recruit as traitors. He reached out to his own children who were overjoyed to finally get some attention from the scumbag but, in reality, were being terribly used. He got his daughter Laura to enlist in the Army but she quickly became pregnant and was going to take an early out. Walker, the quality individual that he was, told her to get an abortion on his dime so that she could stay in but, thankfully, she refused.[20]

Walker’s brother Arthur was working for a Defense contractor but had also fallen on hard times and was recruited.

Walker then went after his own son—

Michael idolized his father. While living with his mother in Maine, Michael had become a heavy marijuana smoker and had turned to burglary to support his habit. Realizing that she had lost control of her 15-year-old son, Barbara sent him to live with his father. John, who also liked to smoke pot, gave Michael a $100 per week allowance and acted more like his best friend than a parent. They even shared joints together.[21]

Walker is the one smiling on the LEFT.

Walker got his son into the Navy where the boy quickly took advantage of several outrageously lax Navy security procedures.

Things began to really take off for Walker. Unfortunately, they went in the opposite direction for his ex-wife who was forced to live with one of their daughters. She got very drunk one night and, not knowing their son was involved, called the FBI. The idiot that she talked to blew the call off as the rantings of a drunk woman but he did file a report that went to agents in VA who took it seriously.

A short time later, he was caught.

After 18 years of treason and irreparable harm to the United States, did Walker tearfully face almost certain execution…?

[Walker] agreed to testify against Whitworth and help the FBI determine the extent of damage his spy ring did. In return, the government agreed to go easier on Michael. While everyone else in the spy ring was given a life prison sentence, Michael was sentenced to 25 years. He was paroled in February 2000, at age 37, having served 15 years in prison. Because she had tipped off the government, Barbara was not prosecuted.

In prison, Walker has remained unrepentant. “It’s all a game, man…history has proved me right,” he said recently. “How much damage did John Walker do? None. Absolutely none. The Russians never invaded.” The Pentagon disagrees. To date, it has spent nearly one billion dollars to replace code machines and make other changes in military hardware because of the secrets that Walker’s spy ring disclosed.[22]

“Rick” Ames was born to Carleton and Rachel Ames in 1941. Carlton Ames had worked for the CIA in Burma during the 50’s and it was almost natural for Ames to follow in his footsteps. When Ames flunked out of the University of Chicago his father pulled strings and got him a job in the CIA in February 1962.[23]

In 1972, Ames was assigned to work in Ankara, Turkey where his job was to “turn” Soviet agents to work for the United States. He sucked at it and returned to America in shame.

In 1974, Ames was given custody over a Soviet agent turned by Columbia. The man eventually began to give up quality intelligence but committed suicide just 3 years later when he was betrayed by “a Czechoslovak translator who had gotten a job at the CIA without it realizing that he was a KGB mole.”[24]

Ames’ handling of this agent was considered an “accomplishment” worthy of higher responsibility and he was sent to New York City, a “hotbed” of clandestine activity thanks to that city hosting the United Nations at “760 United Nations Plaza” where he was given responsibility for Sergey Fedorenko, a nuclear arms expert assigned to the Soviet delegation to the United Nations. They became fast friends.

But when it came to producing results—creating new sources of intelligence rather than babysitting someone else’s leads—Ames was a dismal failure. He was passed over for promotion and he began fighting frequently with his wife Nancy which usually ended up in a drinking binge. He managed to swing a transfer to Mexico City to finally “prove” himself but he was an embittered failure.

It was now that Ames decided the United States was winning the intelligence war “hands down” and yet the citizens were being manipulated to think that the Soviet Union was still a threat. Imagine, all of those nuclear-armed ballistic missiles aimed at our major cities with a vicious, tyrannical, blood-soaked government behind them and we still wanted to be “paranoid”.

One of Ames’ began having an adulterous affair with Maria del Rosario, the cultural attaché for the Colombian Embassy in Mexico. Apparently, she did not know he was married.[25]

In spite of several, clear personal warning flags and history of having accomplished nothing of substance for the CIA, Ames was given a promotion that would devastate the United States in a very short time:

He was named counterintelligence branch chief in Soviet operations, a job that would require him to return to CIA headquarters and would give him access to nearly all of the agency’s Soviet cases, including the names of all of the CIA’s “human assets” in the Soviet Union.[26]

Now Ames was exposed to information that shocked him, successes in intelligence gathering that, according to him, would have absolutely guaranteed Soviet defeat in any armed conflict. There were, indeed, some amazing assets working in our favor at that time, both technological and human. Ames would later bring many of them crashing down.

Del Rosario followed Ames to the United States after his promotion and pressured him to divorce his wife. Nancy Ames agreed to a divorce but used Ames infidelity to guarantee her most of the family assets. Del Rosario then began running up large debts from things like calling her family from VA to Bogota almost daily.

The stage is set for Ames to make some quick cash at his nation’s expense. It was only too easy to for Ames to go to a high-profile Soviet official that he was supposed to be turning and, instead, give over extremely valuable United States secrets.

For the next 10 years (from late 1984 to early 1994), Ames took outrageous amounts of cash from the USSR and devastated U.S. intelligence efforts.

It took a sharp female analyst to force the CIA to scrutinize Ames. He and Rosario had “bought a $540,000 suburban house with cash…[and] purchased a new Jaguar XJ-6 [while] Rosario refurnished [their] entire house.”[27]

After the FBI (the agency that handles making domestic arrests) finally busted through the judicial log-jam of being allowed to break into Ames’ house and find a treasure trove of evidence, he and Rosario were finally arrested.

Regarding the damage Ames accomplished, Wikipedia has a nice little list that I cross-referenced to the Crime Library article and it seems depressingly genuine:

  • Vitaliy Sergeyevich Yurchenko…a KGB officer in the Fifth Department of “Directorate K”…defected to the US only to later repatriate to the Soviets. Ames was privy to all the information that Yurchenko gave to the CIA, and was able to report all the information Yurchenko handed over to the KGB which allowed easy cover-ups of lost information (Cherkashin 219). Yurchenko returned to the Soviet Union in 1985 and was re-assigned to a desk job within the FCD, a reward for helping to keep Ames’ spying a secret (Cherkashin, 174).
  • Dmitri Polyakov was the highest ranking figure in Soviet military intelligence (GRU) giving information to the CIA. He was executed in 1988 after Ames exposed him. Many agree he was the most valuable of the assets compromised by Ames. A CIA official said of him, “He didn’t do this for money. He insisted on staying in place to help us.”
  • Colonel Oleg Gordievsky was the head of the London rezidentura (residency). He spied for the SIS [Britain’s “Secret Intelligence Service” also known as “MI6”]. Ames handed over information about Gordievsky that positively identified him as a traitor (Cherkashin 179-180), although the SIS later managed to extract him.
  • Valery Martynov was a Line X officer at the Washington rezidentura. While a CIA mole was suspected to work at the Washington rezidentura, no one was able to pinpoint who it was. Ames handed over information that led to his arrest and execution (Cherkashin 187).
  • Major Sergei Motorin was a Line PR officer at the Washington rezidentura. The FBI blackmailed him into spying for the US. He was one of two moles at the rezidentura who was betrayed by Ames (Cherkashin 187). Motorin too was quickly executed after he was exposed.
  • Colonel Leonid Polishchuk was a Line KR agent in Nigeria. He too was betrayed by Ames.[28]

And remember Ames’ “good friend” Sergey Fedorenko?—

  • In 1987, Ames was assigned to handle him, and Fedorenko betrayed information about the Soviet missile program to Ames. The two men became good friends, hugging when Fedorenko was about to return to Moscow. “We had become close friends,” said Ames. “We trusted each other completely.” Ames was initially hesitant to betray his friend, but soon after handing over the majority of the information decided that he would also betray Fedorenko because to “do a good job” for KGB he should really tell them every secret he knew. Back in the USSR, Fedorenko used political connections to get himself out of trouble. Years later, Fedorenko met his friend Ames for an emotional reunion over lunch and promised to move to the US for good. Ames promised to help. Shortly after lunch, Ames betrayed him to the KGB for a second time. Fedorenko escaped arrest, defected, and is currently living in Rhode Island.[29]

Pete Earley’s Crime Library article summarized it this way—

Ames…is one of the most cold-blooded traitors in U.S. history. During the nine years that he worked for the KGB as a mole, Ames single handily shut down the CIA’s eyes and ears in the Soviet Union by telling the Russians in 1985 the names of every “human asset” that the U.S. had working for it there. In all, he sold the KGB the names of twenty-five “sources.” These twenty-four men and one woman, all Russians, were immediately arrested and ten were sentenced to what the KGB euphemistically referred to as vyshaya mera (the highest measure of punishment). The condemned person was taken into a room, made to kneel, then shot in the back of the head with a large caliber handgun so his face would be made unrecognizable. His body was buried in a secret, unmarked grave to further punish his loved ones. It was part of the Stalinist tradition. Although Ames didn’t know most of the spies whom he betrayed, one of them was a Soviet diplomat whom he considered to be one of his best friends. Ames betrayed him, not once, but twice…Besides revealing the names of every U.S. spy in the Soviet Union, Ames derailed vital CIA covert operations and put dozens of CIA officers at risk. In return for his treason, the KGB paid him more than $2 million and kept another $2 million earmarked for him in a Moscow bank, making him the highest paid spy in the world.[30]

Do you think the executed John André was a better man than Aldrich Ames? Aside from costing the American taxpayer millions of dollars in fighting the Cold War, Ames was personally responsible for brave allies of ours getting their brains blown out. What do you think President Washington would’ve done with him?

In spite of the “treasure trove” of evidence uncovered by the FBI, Ames’ prosecutors plea-bargained with him. He received a sentence of life in prison while his adulterous companion (who was not only fully aware of his activities but constantly hounded him to get more money from the Soviets[31]) got only five years.

Robert Philip Hanssen

I have saved the “best” for last (and, coincidentally, the chronological last in this “who’s who” of American treason). What prompted my research into this issue was my viewing of the movie “Breach” directed by Billy Ray and co-staring Ryan Phillippe as agent Eric O’Neill back on 02 March of 2008. If you’ve been surfing my pages you may remember Ryan Phillippe also played in the Clint Eastwood film “Flags of Our Fathers” which I reviewed, here.

Robert Hanssen’s treason has been described as “possibly the worst intelligence disaster in US history.”[32]

Hanssen was born to Howard and Vivian Hanssen in 1944. Howard was a dedicated Chicago cop who took time off to enlist in the Navy before returning to law enforcement.

His son, however, was a dork in high school and a weirdo in college. He tried to become a dentist and his former room-mate remembered vividly having to tell the weirdo to stop wearing the same clothes over and over to cadaver dissection and then hanging them up in their room.[33]

Another college aquaintence had an even more disturbing encounter with Hanssen—

“I was leaving his house—I think it was 1968 or 1969—and Bob handed me the memoirs of a British traitor who had spied for Moscow over a 20-year period,” Lauren said. “The book was My Silent War by Kim Philby. He thought the book was terrific. After a few weeks I returned the book and he asked me if I liked it and I said it was very interesting. Bob then said—and I’ve never forgotten it, particularly now—he said, ‘You know, someday I’d like to pull off a caper like that.’”[34]

At college, Hanssen met and eventually married Bernadette “Bonnie” Wauck who was so intensely Catholic as to be a member of the secretive group Opus Dei which required attending “mass” daily.

Hanssen stepped on his father’s coat-tails and got a job in the Chicago police department where his odd, quirky intellect found him in a special “internal affairs” investigation unit and his sole purpose was to rat out “bad” cops.

Soon, even his own boss had had enough of him and told him to apply for the FBI which he needed to tries to be accepted.

In short order he was transferred to New York City and given a top flight assignment but, with 4 kids and only 1 income, it was soon obvious to outsiders that Hanssen already had a second income of selling “secrets” to the Russians. His wife walked in on him counting his money but, instead of turning him in, she made him “confess” what he had done to a priest. He told her that he had actually given them false information and she let it go.

While on the job, Hanssen was quite the tyrant a man with fair knowledge and intellect who had no skill at teaching or socializing and even less patience for those who didn’t understand him immediately.

He may have, in fact, given up “spying” (a cute word for treason) but the temptations you are, by now familiar with, started to rear their ugly heads—indebtedness and opportunity: in 1983 Hanssen was promoted to the Soviet Analytical Unit with clearance “above Top Secret”.

In a testimony to bureaucratic negligence, the tragedy was predictied by Hanssen’s boss—

Hanssen’s new boss, Thomas Sheer, was concerned. He told Washington that a beginning agent in his office made less than a New York City trash collector. His men were vulnerable, he said. If the Russians made a good offer there would be agents who couldn’t resist the money. When the bureau ignored the warning, Sheer quit. But Hanssen didn’t quit. Instead, he did what he had been preparing for all of his life. He went over to the other side.[35]

Hanssen’s next act was to disclose to a KGB colonel living in VA the identities of 3 Soviet double agents, 2 of which were subsequently executed and the 3 rd sent to prison.

Hanssen tried to expunge his guilt through rabid dedication to his wife’s Catholicism which included his own membership in Opus Dei, constant attending of “mass” and demonstrating at abortion clinics.

But he was simultaneously a twisted, perverse individual who secretly taped the sex he had with his wife and sent it to his friend Jack Hoschouer. One time they even watched the tape together in Hanssen’s family den.

Hanssen had extremely weird relationships with women. He spent extended time with a stripper, spending as much as $80,000 on her but may not have ever had sex. Both deny it and the stripper spiraled away into drugs and prostitution so there seems little reason for her to try and protect him.

Besides his quirks and outrageous behavior (he physically assaulted a female agent) there were a great many ignored warning signs like his hacking into another officer’s computer to show how “insecure” the system was but many later assumed he was trying to find out if he was being investigated. Information Technology people, while working on his computer, found a hacking program but he claimed he only used it to avoid cumbersome procedures in getting access to network printers and he was believed!

Authorities knew there was a “mole” in the intelligence community but the activities of Aldrich Ames complicated their hunting efforts tremendously. This mitigated only slightly after Ames’ arrest in 1994. At a loss, the FBI decided to fish for clues with money, inviting an ex KGB agent to give them what they were looking for.

The former agent did have information—a tape of the prized informant. He called himself “Ramon Garcia”. At the time, the FBI was focused on an innocent agent and it took a while for someone to pinpoint the voice on the tape as that of Robert Hanssen. This allowed them to focus their efforts on Hanssen and they soon had enough evidence to make an arrest.

In spite of years of damaging activities giving information to the Soviets and, later, the Russians (some of which cost the lives of good people), Hanssen was able to plea bargain a life sentence.

General Washington would be beside himself.

Today, there is a new force that is beckoning traitors even more powerfully than the desire to make big money and a hatred for America…

The Muhammad Connection

If you’re not a religious person, or if you only check the box on Sunday once in a while, you may think that all religions should receive equal respect.

Perhaps the easiest way to address this issue is something Jesus said—

Matthew 7:15-20
15 “Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves.
16 You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes nor figs from thistles, are they?
17 So every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit.
18 A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit.
19 Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.
20 So then, you will know them by their fruits.”
New American Standard Update

So what are the fruits of Christianity?

Christian charities made up nearly a quarter of the 100 best nonprofit groups for financial integrity in the United States, according to a leading nonprofit management magazine. Twenty-two Christian organizations were ranked in the 2007 Top 100 list by The NonProfit Times. Notably, three groups – Catholic Charities, USA, The Salvation Army, and Habitat for Humanity International – were among the top 10 best charities. To make the list, at least 10 percent of an organization’s income must have come from public support.[36]

Don’t bother whining about “the Crusades”. “The Crusades” were carried out by the Roman Catholic Church at a time when the average Catholic had no idea Who the Jesus Christ of the Bible was because the Bible was not allowed to be read by laymen.[37]

Even so, the deep, dark secret of “the Crusades” is that it is the practitioners of the “religion of peace[38]” that were the cause of them, not the Catholic Church or any other Christians for that matter[39]—

Although the eastern Mediterranean area was conquered by the Aravs in the seventh century, Christians had been permitted to visit the sacred places in the Holy Land until 1071 when the Seljuk Turks swept in from Asia and defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert. Seizing all of Asia Minor as well as the Holy Land the Seljuk Turks soon impeded Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem, forcing the Byzantine emperor, Alexius Comnenus, to ask Pope Urban II (1088-1099) for help against the Turks in the early 1090s.[40]

A Palestinian boy fires an assault rifle in celebration as children dance at the Ain al-Hilweh refugee camp near the port city Sidon in south Lebanon September 11, 2001.

And what is the “fruit” of the “religion of peace”?—

For one thing, it seems that muslims revel in the slaughter of innocent people.

3,000 Americans were slaughtered on 11 September, 2001 for the crime of being Americans (some of them were forced at knife-point to become the very instrument of flaming death). Shortly thereafter, muslims around the world celebrated.

On 06 March, 2008 a single “Palestinian” muslim walked into the Mercaz Harav yeshiva in Gaza City with an AK-47 and slaughtered 7 of the boys studying at the school there before an armed Israeli killed him. Upon hearing of the incident, “Palestinian” muslims crowded the streets to celebrate the deaths of those innocent boys.[41]

There are so many examples I’m going to limit the ones I have and hit them rapid fire:

  • Two women suffering from Down Syndrome had bombs strapped to them by Islamists in Baghdad and were detonated in a crowd of innocent people killing 73.[42]
  • The “Palestinian” Islamist movement known as “Hamas” uses a Mickey Mouse-like character broadcasting on a kids show how to be a suicide bomber and slaughter Jews.[43]
  • A Jordanian woman left home “without permission” for a year and divorced her husband. Her brother lured her back by claiming their father was ill, met her at the door, struck her, banged her head against a wall then strangled her to death in order to “preserve the honor of their family”.[44] In Islam, this is known as an “honor killing”. The National Organization for Women had no comment.
  • Something else America’s far-Left feminist organizations are disgustingly silent on: the muslim practice of mutilating the gentiles of little girls for the express purpose of insuring that they never experience sexual pleasure.[45] Unlike famous feminist (and Leftist) Gloria Allred, Islam critic Ayaan Hirsi Ali frequently speaks out on this. She would know, she herself was mutilated when she was only 6 years old.[46]
  • WorldNetDaily’s Bob Unruh and international journalist, former Special Forces soldier Michael Yon broke a story that is seemingly unbelievable in its brutality of Islamists trying to strong arm an Iraqi family by baking their son and serving him to them as a meal.[47]
  • In order to perfect the use of chemical weapons against innocent people for the sake of causing the greatest amount of pain and harm, muslims first test those weapons on tethered dogs and videotaped their writhing in pain, carefully taking notes.[48]
  • Common “TTP” (Tactics, Techniques & Proceedures) for Islamists in Iraq is to put explosives on women, the disabled, children and animals and then detonate them when they can do the most harm.[49]

So, basically, whomever or whatever is innocent, dependent or vulnerable is what Islamsits zero in on to torture, mutilate and kill in the most despicable of fashions.

This is the force that now calls Americans into betraying their country or simply killing people because they are average Americans—

John Allen Williams (“John Allen Muhammad”)

In October of 2002, John Allen Muhammad (formerly John Allen Williams) and teenager Lee Boyd Malvo murdered 10 people and critically injured three others in the Washington Metropolitan Area. They created a secret compartment in the trunk of a Chevrolet Caprice from which to slaughter innocent, unsuspecting citizens as they went about their daily lives (much the same way Islamists do in Iraq).

Williams was a member of Louis Farrakhan’s Nation of Islam, an organization whose other well-known leader—Elijah Poole (a.k.a. “Elijah Muhammad”)— who was jailed for WWII draft evasion and sedition (he openly supported the bloodthirsty imperialism of Japan). Poole later talked heavyweight champion Cassius Clay (a.k.a. “Muhammad Ali”) into dodging the Vietnam draft and becoming a figurehead for the anti-American movement.[50]

Williams was basically a complete failure. He spent time in the National Guard and active duty Army but only managed to make it to E5 (Sergeant) before getting out. The Army did manage to teach him how to shoot a rifle, though. It was then that he changed his name to “Muhammad” and joined the Nation of Islam and may even have provided “security” for Farrakhan’s “Million Man March” (the perfect job for him) although Farrakhan has distanced himself from the murderer.[51] Not being capable of making it in civilized society, Williams then became involved in credit card fraud and, even more disturbingly, “immigration document fraud”.[52]

The ally of the Islamist movement is the Black separatist movement and, often, they are one and the same, vehemently and viciously attacking America. Williams received just such aid from the lead investigator in the case Montgomery County, MD, Police Chief, Charles Moose who purposely mislead the public by telling them the suspects were middle-aged white men (even the vehicle description—a “box truck”—was wrong).

How ironic that Moose’s position of chief law enforcement officer for the county of Montgomery didn’t ameliorate the racial chip on his shoulder, much the same as Barack Obama’s wife, Michelle, in spite of receiving an education at Princeton and Harvard law school, being given a $300,000/year salary from the University of Chicago Hospital[53] and having enough combined income with her husband to afford a full-time housekeeper and a personal trainer she visits with four times a week,[54] states that she wasn’t proud of America until her husband became the Democrat Party front-runner for president in 2008.[55]

Williams is also a social misfit, having failed at two separate marriages. The best he could do is win over and indoctrinate a teenager, Lee Boyd Malvo.

After his arrest, authorities also claimed that Muhammad admitted that he admired and modeled himself after Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda, and approved of the September 11, 2001, attacks. One of Malvo’s psychiatric witnesses testified in his trial that Muhammad had indoctrinated him into believing that the proceeds of the extortion attempt would be used to begin a new nation of only young, “pure” black people somewhere in Canada.[56]

One can only guess how much Malvo bought in to this outrageous delusion but, given Williams’ powerful role in Malvo’s life, it certainly had an affect.

Most disturbing of all, the Democrat Party (with the help of the “mainstream media”) is doing all it can to make another Lee Malvo become president of the United States.

Barack Hussein Obama has spent the past 20 years at the Trinity United Methodist Church in Chicago, listening to a man infinitely more dangerous than John Williams—Jeremiah Wright.

If you are curious as to what this “church” stands for, you can read for yourself (I’m not linking it, find it yourself)—

The Trinity United Web site tells of a “commitment to the black community, commitment to the black family, adherence to the black work ethic, pledge to make all the fruits of developing acquired skills available to the black community.”[57]

In 1984, Wright (along with his good Islamic friend Louis Farrakhan—hating America trumps allegiance to Jesus Christ, you see) made cozy with Muammar Qaddafi in Libya and Fidel Castro in Cuba.

Wright (whom I refuse to call “Reverend” and you will see why below), has stated to his 8,500 member-strong congregation:

“(Jesus’) enemies had their opinion about Him,” Wright wrote in a eulogy of the late scholar Asa Hilliard in the November/December 2007 issue. “The Italians for the most part looked down their garlic noses at the Galileans.” Wright continued, “From the circumstances surrounding Jesus’ birth (in a barn in a township that was under the Apartheid Roman government that said his daddy had to be in), up to and including the circumstances surrounding Jesus’ death on a cross, a Roman cross, public lynching Italian style …”[58]

  • Wright on 9/11: “White America got their wake-up call after 9/11. White America and the Western world came to realize people of color had not gone away, faded in the woodwork, or just disappeared as the Great White West kept on its merry way of ignoring black concerns.” On the Sunday after the attacks, Dr. Wright blamed America.
  • Wright on the disappearance of Natalee Holloway [Holloway was almost certainly raped and murdered]: “Black women are being raped daily in Africa [by black African muslims. ]. One white girl from Alabama gets drunk at a graduation trip to Aruba, goes off and gives it up while in a foreign country and that stays in the news for months.”
  • Wright on Israel: “The Israelis have illegally occupied Palestinian territories for over 40 years now. Divestment has now hit the table again as a strategy to wake the business community and wake up Americans concerning the injustice and the racism under which the Palestinians have lived because of Zionism.”
  • Wright on America: He has used the term “middleclassness” in a derogatory manner frequently mentions “white arrogance” and the “oppression” of [black]-Americans today and has referred to “this racist United States of America.” [Who hasn’t heard “Reverend” Wright’s “U.S. of KKK A.” remark?][59]

You know how this “man of God” landed his current wife? He wooed her away from one of his congregants. She and her former husband were going to the good Reverend for “marriage counseling.”[60]

Oh, by the way? —Reverend Wright is now retiring into a $1.6 million dollar, 10,340 square foot home in a gated community, not in Africa, but in Chicago.[61]

Here’s a few things that come to my mind regarding what is in store for this mouthpiece of satan—

The Jesus *I* know well says:

Matthew 7:21-23
21 “Not everyone who says to Me, ‘L-rd, L-rd,’ will enter the Kingdom of Heaven, but he who does the Will of My Father who is in Heaven will enter.
22 Many will say to Me on that day, ‘L-rd, L-rd, did we not prophesy in Your Name, and in Your Name cast out demons, and in Your Name perform many miracles?’
23 And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS!’”
New American Standard Update (capitalization and abbreviation added to correct disrespect)

The L-rd’s half-brother said:

James 3:1-2
1 Let not many of you become teachers, my brethren, knowing that as such we will incur a stricter judgment.
2 For we all stumble in many ways.
New American Standard Update (emphasis added)

Matthew 18:6
6 …whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in Me to stumble, it would be better for him to have a heavy millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the depth of the sea!
NASU

This is not a comprehensive list of all the blasphemous, traitorous things Wright has said from the pulpit (like the American government created AIDS for the express purpose of killing black people[62]), but what is more important is how much sway he had on Barack Obama.

We have enough information to make an educated guess:

Since the 1980s, Obama has not only remained a regular attendee at Wright’s services in his inner city mega church, Trinity United Church of Christ, along with its other 8,500 members, he’s been a close disciple and personal friend of Wright. Wright conducted Obama’s marriage to his wife Michelle, baptized his two daughters, and blessed Obama’s Chicago home. Obama’s best-selling book, “The Audacity of Hope,” takes its title from one of Wright’s sermons.[63]

In 2006, Obama gave Wright’s “church” $22,500 in donations.[64]

He is currently the Democrat Party’s presidential front-runner. Is it still not OK to question their patriotism….

Fortunately for the families of those murdered by Williams and Malvo, for Americans and for justice, Williams was tried and convicted in VA and received the death sentence. In just 20 short years, justice will be served (unless Leftists lawyers and judges don’t overturn the verdict…or Leftist politicians don’t put a “moratorium” on capital punishment as they did in NJ[65]).

Here is a useful summary by author Hal Lindsey of random acts of violence inspired by “the religion of peace”—

In February 2007, Sulejman Talovic, a Bosnian Muslim walked into the “Union Station” shopping mall in Utah and opened fire murdering 5 people before he was stopped. Both the media and local law enforcement were baffled as to why he did it.

  • Ismail Yassin Mohamed, 22, stole a car in Minneapolis. He went on a rampage, ramming the stolen car into other cars and then stealing a van and continuing to ram other cars, injuring one person. During his rampage, Mohamed repeatedly yelled, “Die, die, die, kill, kill, kill,” and when asked why he did all this, he replied, “Allah made me do it.”
  • Omeed Aziz Popal, a Muslim from Afghanistan, killed one person and injured 14 during a murderous drive through San Francisco city streets in August 2006, during which he targeted people on crosswalks and sidewalks. He identified himself as a terrorist after his rampage. Later the murders were ascribed to Popal’s mental problems, and to stress arising from his impending arranged marriage.
  • On July 28, 2006, a Muslim named Naveed Afzal Haq forced his way into the Jewish Federation of Greater Seattle. Once inside, Haq announced, “I’m a Muslim American I’m angry at Israel,” and then began shooting, killing one woman and injuring five more. FBI assistant special agent David Gomez stated: “We believe … it’s a lone individual acting out his antagonism. There’s nothing to indicate that it’s terrorism-related. But we’re monitoring the entire situation.”
  • In March 2006, a 22-year-old Iranian student named Mohammed Reza Taheri-azar drove an SUV onto the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, deliberately trying to kill people and succeeding in injuring nine. During his arraignment, he explained that he was “thankful for the opportunity to spread the will of Allah.”

Officials dismissed the possibility of terrorism, even after Taheri-azar wrote a series of letters to the UNC campus newspaper detailing the Islamic justification for warfare against unbelievers and explaining why he believed his attacks were justified from an Islamic perspective.

The FBI and the media assured the public in every case that there was no connection between Islam and the attacks.[66]

Joel “Henry” Hinrichs III

This incident struck close to home for both my wife and I.

On the evening of 1 October, 2005, Hinrichs tried to gain access to a packed Oklahoma University football stadium. He was wearing a backpack—

He had a ticket to the game, but was turned away because he didn’t want his pack searched.[67]

Apparently, he then sat down on a bench outside the stadium. Moments later, an explosion rocked the busses parked nearby as a device Hinrichs had concealed in his pack exploded, killing him instantly.

OU President David Boren, a former Democrat Oklahoma governor and U.S. Senator, quickly made a statement to the effect that Hinrichs was “emotionally distraught” and simply wanted to commit suicide.[68]

At a packed football stadium.

I think we can all agree it is an extremely common way to kill oneself, is it not? —Locked garage with a running car, belt around the neck and a ceiling fixture, gun in the mouth, bomb in a backpack in a crowded facility. Happens all the time. He was just “depressed”.

Amazingly enough, FBI Investiagor Salvador Hernandez, U.S. Attorney John Richter and crack, professional OU Police Chief Elizabeth Woolen all got together and assured the public that neither they, nor students like my wife (at the time working towards her BA in Music Performance at OU) had nothing to fear.[69]

If you are unfamiliar with this story it’s because the media didn’t cover it. “Nothing to look at here. Move along…move along.”

I guess agent Hernandez must’ve been privy to more information than he lead us to believe in his brief statement because law enforcement officials felt they had good reason to break in to the deceased’s apartment. What they were looking at, we’ll never know because the search warrant was sealed by the Justice Department.[70]

Fortunately, the team at WorldNetDaily was on the job and it was discovered that Hinrichs, in fact, was in possession of a wealth of jihadi material including how to make bombs[71]. Imagine that.

Another odd factoid was that Hinrichs shared his apartment with a Pakistani roommate who could not be located after the incident.[72]

But, most disturbing of all, was the background of Joel Henry Hinrichs he was an average, American country boy—

Originally from Colorado Springs, Colorado, Hinrichs was a National Merit Scholar who graduated from Wasson High School in May 2002.[73]

That is, until he was drawn to attend the Islamic Society of Norman. The same “Islamic Society” where the so-called 20th [September 11 th ] Hijacker, Zacharias Moussaoui studied the “religion of peace”.[74]

In spite of the across-the-board ban on “profiling” by Leftist authorities in this country, there are still some hard-working law enforcement officials that know how to spot a possible problem in a person’s appearance and body language. Perhaps this is an attempt by Islamists to make their jobs that much more difficult.[75]

There are many patriotic, self-sacrificing Americans who have volunteered to go to Iraq to fight our enemies there. There are some other Americans, however, who have volunteered to go to Iraq to kill those same Americans. As of July of last year, the military was holding five such individuals.[76] Wanna guess what their religious persuasion is?

In 2006, Khalid Chahhou, a high-school Spanish teacher at Smithfield-Selma High School in North Carolina was forced to resign after it was discovered that he had given his students a quaint little word-search puzzle that, when you put it together it read—

[Israeli Prime Minister Ariel] Sharon killed a lot of innocent people in Palestine. Hamas is not a terrorist group. They have the right to defend their country. This is something that forms part of our freedom and dignity. Allah help destroy this body of evil that is making human life so miserable. Destroy America, a country where evil is sponsored.”[77]

After the loss of 343 firemen during the September 11, 2001 Islamist attacks, the New York city fire department found the wisdom a mere 4 years later to bring in a muslim chaplain. He didn’t last long, however, when he started making statements that questioned who was “really” behind 9/11.[78]

Earlier this year, al Qaeda released a propaganda video in which the “spokesman” called on Islamists to greet President Bush with “bombs and booby-trapped vehicles” when he visits the Middle East. The man was later identified as Adam Gadahn, an American citizen born in California.[79]

At the “hell” that is the Islamist detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, inmates receive the benefit of a muslim chaplain counselor. One of those counselors, an Army captain and West Point alumnus, James Yee, was detained after being caught with detailed maps of the post showing the locations of each detainee.[80]

Asan Akbar, a sergeant with the 326th Engineers was deployed to Iraq in 2003 when he decided it was time to take action…against his own chain of command. Akbar rolled hand grenades into the tents of several officers and, when they rushed out opened fire with his service rifle. Three were seriously wounded, twelve others needed medical attention. Army Captain Christopher Seifert and Air Force Major Gregory Stone gave their lives that day. Not to foreign guerrillas or enemy soldiers, but to an Army sergeant who happened to be muslim.

Akbar was formerly known as “Mark Fidel Kools” but, supposedly had his name changed by his mother, “Quran Bilal” whose own dedication to the “religion of peace” seems to have caused her to change her name as well (although this was not referenced by the below article)—

One address for Mark Fidel Kools in Los Angeles is the Bilal Islamic Center…[81]

The motivation behind Kools’ behavior was a complete mystery to the dedicated news-reporting team at CNN[82] (but things seemed a little more clear to commentator and columnist Michelle Malkin[83]).

One thing the Islamists do have right: the West is most certainly decadent and weak and a frightening successful attack on the scale of September 11 th or worse is only a matter of time.

Marine Corps recruiting in Berkeley, California is shut down by the pro-homosexual, pro-abortion “Code Pink”.

Now let’s tie this all together, shall we? Islam, treason and American decadence that desecrates the blood of thousands upon thousands of patriots who have given their lives to secure this great nation across her once-proud history…

Nada Nadim Prouty $750 fine, no jail-time.

Nada Nadim Prouty is a Lebanese woman who came to America on a student visa. After it expired in 1990, she paid an indigent United States citizen (she must’ve scoured to find one) to marry her so that she could stay on.[84] She must’ve had something really important on her mind. Maybe she just really, really loves America.

Um…by the way? Such a “marriage” is also known as “fraud”.

But she was a Lebanese who spoke vital enemy languages and, thanks to the Leftist, suicidal lunacy of William Jefferson “playah’” Clinton who destroyed our Human Intelligence assets during his reign of depravity,[85] the FBI and the CIA all jumped at her services like sailor pulling for Liberty at Bangkok. Unfortunately for us, they were just a little too desperate to properly check this individual’s background.

Samar Spinelli $500 fine, no jail-time.

Well, while she was working for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, she helped herself to files regarding an ongoing investigation. She seemed very concerned about the well-being of a restaurant owner named “Talal Chahine” (she also checked to see if she, herself, was ever investigated). Oddly enough, Chahine was married to someone she knew very well—her sister.[86]

Now, call me crazy, but the organization that appeared to have the most to gain by her busy activities was “Hezbollah”. You remember “Hezbollah”, don’t you? These are the same nice guys who sit in Lebanese schoolyards and launch rockets into Israel.[87] Who are they aiming at? Just anyone who lives in Israel man, woman, child, Jew, Arab, it doesn’t matter. Their only crime? —Living in Israel.

No one knows the extent of the information she was able to get out to this wonderful group before she was caught.

But it was three years after she stole the classified information before she was caught. During that time (2003), this “valuable asset” was loaned by the FBI to the CIA to help debrief jihadis in Iraq![88]

But it gets better. It seems that she also had ties to the “Syrian National Socialist Party”. Basically Arab Nazis.[89]

She has a sister who pulled the same fraud gambit to become a citizen. This sister was then made an officer in the United States Marine Corps. Oo-rah. Nice going you PC POGu[90] terds. She, too, committed espionage for “Hezbollah”.

And the best is last: what do you think these 2 should get? Life in prison? Death? Given the amount of blood “Hezbollah” has on its hands, and how dangerous they are, the sentences should be strong, indeed.

Remember our upstanding citizen, John Allen Williams (a.k.a. “John Allen Muhammad”)? After it was proven that he was a cold-blooded barbaric murderer, some investigators in the Army said, “Wait a minute! Let’s look at where this guy served.”

The accused Beltway sniper and Muslim convert was a member of the Army’s 84th Engineering Company. In an eerie parallel to the Akbar case, Muhammad is suspected of throwing a thermite grenade into a tent housing 16 of his fellow soldiers as they slept before the ground-attack phase of Gulf War I in 1991. Muhammad’s superior, Sgt. Kip Berentson, told both Newsweek and The Seattle Times that he immediately suspected Muhammad, who was “trouble from day one.”

Curiously, Muhammad was admitted to the Army despite being earlier court-martialed for willfully disobeying orders, striking another noncommissioned officer, wrongfully taking property, and being absent without leave while serving in the Louisiana National Guard.

Although Muhammad was led away in handcuffs and transferred to another company pending charges for the grenade attack, an indictment never materialized. Muhammad was honorably discharged from the Army in 1994. Eight years later, he was arrested in the 21-day Beltway shooting spree that left 10 dead and three wounded.[91]

There is an old New Jersey propaganda commercial that aired back in the days of good ole’ Tom “Stay Out of Our Business” Kean[92] that had him saying stupidly, “New Jersey and you, perfect together.”


Watch the video: Grandson of shot down WW2 U-2 spy plane pilot returns to Moscow


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